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By Bisi O., Ossicini S., Pavesi L.

The impressive photoluminescence houses of porous silicon have attracted enormous learn curiosity for the reason that their discovery in 1990. Luminescence is because of excitonic recombination quantum constrained in Si nanocrystals which stay after the partial electrochemical dissolution of silicon. Porous silicon is constituted through a nanocrystalline skeleton (quantum sponge)immersed in a community of pores. for this reason, porous silicon is characterised through a really huge inner floor quarter (of the order of 500m2=cm3). This inner floor is passivated yet is still hugely chemically reactive that is one of many crucial gains of this new and complicated fabric. We current an outline of the experimental characterization and theoretical modeling of porous silicon, from the guidance as much as a number of purposes. Emphasis is dedicated to the optical homes of porous silicon that are heavily on the topic of the quantum nature of the Si nanostructures. The features of many of the luminescence bands are analyzed and the underlying simple mechanisms are awarded. within the quest of an eficient electroluminescent machine, we survey the consequences for numerous porous silicon contacts, with specific cognizance to the interface homes, to the steadiness requirement and to the service injection mechanisms. different gadget functions are mentioned to boot.

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57. NDFWM signal versus detuning DE ˆ " h…o2 À o1 † for: (a) 64%; (b) 68%; and (c) 73% porosity. The solid lines are theoretical ®ts. From Ref. [193]. 272], to empirical pseudo-potential (EPL) [185,200,202,209,222,260,261,269], from Hartree±Fock [245,258,265,266,268] to density functional theory [201,203±208,210±214,217±221,226,228±231,234± 236,238,246,247,255,270±272]. All the calculations performed on con®ned Si structures give a similar picture concerning the quantum con®nement effect: a widening of the band gap from the near-infrared wavelength region to, and beyond, the visible range.

The energy of the low energy peak is almost independent of the oxidation temperature, whereas the higher one moves higher in energy with the oxidation temperature. Besides, at low temperature the low energy band dominates, whereas at higher temperature the high energy one. On the light of the results showed in Fig. 66 one can suggest the following interpretation of these experimental results: during the oxidation treatment some of the 62 O. Bisi et al. / Surface Science Reports 38 (2000) 1±126 Fig.

From Ref. [184]. However, all the detailed studies of the absorption behavior in the optical regime for PS show a linear behavior in a Tauc plot, characteristic of an indirect gap. Moreover, the indirect nature of the band gap is supported by the observed ®ne structure in resonantly excited low temperature PL [184]. The observed presence of momentum-conserving phonons (see Fig. 55) is peculiar of an indirect gap semiconductor. 1) for Si quantum wires predict a direct band gap, a careful analysis of the character of the band edge states shows that the real nature of this gap is pseudo-direct and not a direct one [185].

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