By Maurice H. Francombe, John L. Vossen
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The packing density is defined by the number of atoms per unit volume in a film. This is generally determined by measurements of film thickness using a stylus, and of the mass per unit area, measured by the electrolytic method. Figure 19 s h o w s the relative packing density for Au films deposited on a copper substrate. The packing density increases with increasing acceleration voltage. The density approached that of the bulk material, when the films were deposited at higher acceleration voltages.