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By Maurice H. Francombe, John L. Vossen

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Yamada, H. Takaoka, and T. Takagi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, Suppl. 21-1, 403 (1982). 57. J. R. Durig, R. C. Lord, W. J. Gardner, and L. H. Johnston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 1078 (1962). 58. S. B. Austerman, D. A. Berlincourt, and H. A. Krueger, J. Appl. Phys. 34, (1963). 59. J. Callaway, Phys. Rev. 113, 1046 (1959). 60. J. I. Pankove, H. P. Marusa, and J. E. Berkeyheiser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 197 (1970). 61. J. A. Van Vechten, Phys. Rev. 187, 1007 (1969). 62. Y. Morimoto and S. Ushio, J. Appl. Phys.

D. Stein, H. Usui, and T. Takagi, Proc. Symp. , 6th, 1982, 47 (1982). 23. C. A. Neugebauer, in "Handbook of Thin Film Technology" (L. I. Maissel and R. ), Chapter 8. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970. 24. V. O. Babaev, J. V. Bykov, and M. B. Guseva, Thin Solid Films 38, 1 (1976). 25. K. L. Chopra, "Thin Film Phenomena," Chapter 4. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969. 26. T. Takagi, I. Yamada, and A. Sasaki, Thin Solid Films 39, 207 (1976). 27. M. Kamiyama and S. Sugata, "Thin Film Handbook," 1-8-4. Ohmusha Syoten, Tokyo, 1964.

The packing density is defined by the number of atoms per unit volume in a film. This is generally determined by measurements of film thickness using a stylus, and of the mass per unit area, measured by the electrolytic method. Figure 19 s h o w s the relative packing density for Au films deposited on a copper substrate. The packing density increases with increasing acceleration voltage. The density approached that of the bulk material, when the films were deposited at higher acceleration voltages.

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