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By Leonard G Copping; Maurice B Green; R T Rees; Society of Chemical Industry (Great Britain)

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The cultivar "Tatinagaha" was seeded on 17 June and harvested on 24 October. Gross income/plant protection cost ratios were 11:1 and 8:1, depending on which pesticides were chosen and frequency of applications. However, these values might vary also, depending on other factors like pest situations, whether conditions affecting yields, and social and economic factors like shortage of labour, pesticide price, etc. Anyhow, the values of 11:1 and 8:1 shown in Table 11 suggest that applications of insecticides promise the great benefit if appropriate pest management is implemented.

00 1. 40 Relative value 227 142 108 162 124 132 127 117 143 100 * See in Figure 2. Soybean was traditionally cultivated in upland fields and also on levees within paddy rice fields for under intensive farming in small-scaled 23 agriculture in Japan. Since 1970, however, soybean has been cropped in lowland/paddy fields widely because of the pressure of overproduction of rice. Annual cultivated area was 67,000 ha in upland and 16,000 ha in lowland for 1975-77 but 42,000 ha in upland and 104,000 ha for 1987-91.

29 When T-leafw is abundant, 3-4 applications are recommended (12). 3%of the soybean cultivated area were treated 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 times on an average by insecticides, respectively (12). It means that about 1/3 of soybean cultivated area was not applied by insecticides. The peaks of "White leaves" fluctuate less or more in time, height or population, and shapes frequently. Under outbreak conditions like in 1989, 3 applications sometimes were not enough to prevent soybean crop from Tleafw's feeding.

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