Download Passing the Buck: Federalism and Canadian Environmental by Kathryn Harrison PDF

By Kathryn Harrison

A research of the impression of federalism on Canadian environmental coverage, tracing the evolution of the function of the government in environmental coverage and in federal-provincial family in regards to the setting from the overdue Sixties to the early Nineties.

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Extra info for Passing the Buck: Federalism and Canadian Environmental Policy

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Taxation can be used as an environmental policy instrument by federal or provincial governments in two ways: tax exemptions and credits can be offered as subsidies to encourage environmentally sound behaviour, and emission fees can be used as a regulatory tool to discourage undesirable behaviour. Federal reliance on taxation powers could be overruled as an invasion of The Constitutional Framework 41 provincial jurisdiction, however, if the courts perceive the real intent of federal taxation to be pollution control, rather than generation of revenues.

However, in light of the ubiquity of impacts of human activity on the 35 36 Passing the Buck environment, some authority over the environment is associated with almost every federal head of power. Federal Proprietary Powers Like the provinces, the federal government has extensive powers with respect to its own property. In addition to its proprietary powers to conserve or exploit federal Crown resources, Section 91(1 A) grants the federal government authority to legislate with respect to its own resources.

Municipalities were first offered forgivable loans for sewage treatment facilities in 1961. Federal grants and loans for pollution abatement have also been provided to the pulp and paper industry and non-ferrous smelters. However, in striking contrast to the US federal government, the Canadian federal government has not subsidized provincial administration of environmental programs, either conditionally or unconditionally. Although the federal spending power has been used to support the federal government's own programs and to subsidize polluters, it has not been used to strong-arm the provinces.

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