By Kathleen S. Uno
Strains the early twentieth-century upward thrust of eastern day-care facilities.
Read or Download Passages to Modernity: Motherhood, Childhood, and Social Reform in Early Twentieth Century Japan PDF
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Extra resources for Passages to Modernity: Motherhood, Childhood, and Social Reform in Early Twentieth Century Japan
40 Although hired baby-sitters usually came from poor households, occasionally motives other than poverty led parents to place children in other households. 41 Rather than the joys and satisfactions of nurturing precious infants, babysitters’ songs reveal the misery and resentment of modern komori. Former komori, when interviewed in their old age by Mariko Asano Tamanoi, recalled singing, “One, we are all bullied. Two, we are all hated. Three, we are all forced to talk. Four, we are all scolded.
Public and private kindergartens charged tuition, which tended to limit enrollment to children from 42 Child-Rearing in the Nineteenth Century wealthy families. The curriculum, which fairly often included foreign languages and Western etiquette, appealed little to lower-class families. 69 Attended by a tiny percentage of the nation’s preschoolers, kindergartens exerted little influence on the household division of labor or attitudes toward institutional care of children during the late nineteenth century.
10 Whether translated as “household,” “family,” or “house” (I prefer the former), the term “ie” denotes a corporate unit comprised of past, present, and future generations. Of great importance to the fate of day-care in Japan was the fact that the overriding ie goal of household continuity shaped all aspects of reproduction in the family, including procreation, child care, and the education of children. Children were essential to the achievement of an ie’s immortality—the eternal presence of descendants to pay respects to the ancestors, the maintenance of household prosperity, and the preservation of family status in the local community.