By Robert E. Loeb
Thousands of urbanites by no means see primeval forests in the course of their lives with the exception of the previous progress forests present in city parks. regrettably, those forests are at the verge of disappearing simply because arboreal replica is misplaced to human trampling and park directors and concrete foresters don't preserve those “natural” forests.
To reduction city foresters and park managers in assembly the demanding situations, study on previous progress forests in city parks is synthesized by way of ancient ecology to introduce the tools applied to bare long term wooded area composition adjustments. The case research of 3 stands in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, PA relates pre-chestnut blight tree species densities and post-chestnut blight arboreal adjustments to fireplace and customer trampling. the data received on how city outdated development forests have built and adjusted is used to boost recovery ecology established frameworks to revive species composition and handle demanding situations to wooded area survival together with invasive species.
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The various terms used to describe the occurrence of each species were reduced to two words “common” and “uncommon” to enable analysis. The tree species total for the two metropolitan areas was 98. New York had slightly more species (84) than Philadelphia (76). 1 (continued) Species Cultivation date New York 1819 Salix viminalis (A) Sassafras albidum Thuja occidentalis Tilia americana Tsuga canadensis Ulmus americana Ulmus rubra LC 1633 1536 1752 1736 1752 B 1830 C C C U C U Philadelphia 1818 C C C C C U Nomenclature and identification of a species as alien (A) follows Gleason and Cronquist (1991).
Tulip-tree’s total sph was much closer to equal among the forests in 2007 than 1907, and the population of canopy trees expanded in all three forests by 2007. The number of subcanopy trees increased for white oak in 2007 relative to 1907, and saplings were present only in Country Club and Robert’s Hollow in 2007. 7a–d, respectively). Rock chestnut-oak was uniquely found in Robert’s Hollow in 1907 with an sph of 40, and by 2007 was present in all three forests but had an sph of less than one. Bitternuthickory did not have saplings in 1907 but two-thirds of the population was saplings in 2007.
The most puzzling change in 2007 was the virtual loss of the former dominant species in Robert’s Hollow, rock chestnut-oak, even though the species is well represented in the canopy, and sapling size classes of Inwood Hill Park (Fitzgerald and Loeb 2008). Paul (1908) reported “the white and chestnut oaks are suffering severely from a green scale (Asterolecanium variolosum), one of the most difficult and injurious insects we have encountered …. ” In the northeastern United States, rock chestnut-oak is the most favored host of green scale with saplings being severely affected and mature trees dying when other factors stress the tree (Parr 1940).