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By David Potter

Protecting the paintings of non-governmental agencies in attempting to switch the environmental regulations of governments and enterprise enterprises, this research appears at box examine in Asia and Africa, and relates it to theoretical concerns within the educational box.

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Extra info for NGOs and Environmental Policies: Asia and Africa

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Democratization, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 158–78. Myers, N. (1993) ‘Tropical Forests: The Main Deforestation Fronts’, Environmental Conservation, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 9–16. Parry, G. and Moran, M. ) (1994) Democracy and Democratization, London, Routledge. Payne, R. (1995) ‘Freedom and the Environment’, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 6, No. 3 (July), pp. 41–55. Peluso, N. (1993) ‘Coercing Conservation: The Politics of State Resource Control’ in R. ) The State and Social Power in Global Environmental Politics, New York, Columbia University Press.

If one regards ‘passive resistance’ as a kind of opposition, one is left with roughly the same three-fold distinction as in Clark (1991) who suggested NGOs are bound to act in one of three general ways with respect to the state: reforming the state, complementing the state or opposing the state. One can generalise this to working with, apart from or against any target institution. It may not be immediately obvious what is meant by complementary activities or how they constitute a form of advocacy.

57–74. Shin, Y. D. dissertation, Yale University. SKEPHI (NGO Network for Forest Conservation in Indonesia) (1993) Setiakawan, No. 11, July-Sept. SPWD (Society for Promotion of Wastelands Development) (1993) Joint Forest Management Update, 1993, New Delhi, SPWD. Stephens, J. (1993) ‘Capitalist Development and Democracy: Empirical Research on the Social Origins of Democracy’ in D. Copp et al. ) The Idea of Democracy, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 409–47. Swaminathan, M. , p. 84. Tanjung, O.

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