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By C Dupas; P Houdy; M Lahmani; European Materials Research Society

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These reactive radicals form highly volatile compounds at the sample surface. At the same time, ions and electrons are produced in great numbers and the growing negative potential at the surface sets the ion bombardment in motion. In this way, chemical and physical etching are brought about in synergism. 1)]. The ingenuity of the operator then goes into judicious adjustment of the plasma parameters (type of gas injected, gas pressure, RF power) so as to achieve a highly anisotropic etch with side walls as near to vertical as possible, whilst activating a surface chemistry that procures the desired selectivity between materials and high etch rates.

One advantage of this method is that thick layers can be deposited very quickly. However, when transfer is carried out by electrolytic growth inside patterns of nanometric dimensions, certain new effects arise: • • The electrolyte is more difficult to regenerate, so large pattern features grow more quickly than narrow ones. The growth rate varies from one pattern to another because it depends on the crystallographic orientation of the crystal grains in the growth base, and if the latter is polycrystalline without texturing, each pattern statistically samples all possible crystal orientations on the surface.

The main difficulties encountered with this technique arise from space charges caused by the strong electron current, which concentrate near the 1 Lithography and Etching Processes 29 Beam Interferometer Mask SCAN Mask (x,y) STEP Wafer (x,y ) Lens Interferometer Deflector Wafer SCAN STEP Fig. 17. Left: Schematic view of the SCALPEL electron projection setup with step-and-repeat. Right: Example of SCALPEL production. Holes of diameter 80 nm in a DUV resist of thickness 750 nm. R. PDF mask and interfere with the beam, and heating of the mask, which leads to distortion.

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