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By Mikhail V. Vol kenshtein

acids. The achievements of molecular biology testify to the good fortune of fabric technological know-how in a realm which, until eventually lately, seemed completely enig­ matic and mysterious. extra clinical advancements should still convey to mankind titanic advancements either in theoretical wisdom and in useful purposes, particularly, in agriculture, medication, and expertise. the aim of this ebook is to give an explanation for molecular biophysics to all who may perhaps desire to find out about it, to biologists, to physicists, to chemists. This publication includes descriptive sections, in addition to sections dedicated to rigorous mathematical therapy of a few difficulties, a few of that have been studied via the writer and his collaborators. those sections will be passed over in the course of a primary examining. every one bankruptcy has a particular bibliography. This booklet is way from an exhaustive treatise on molecular biophysics. It offers mostly with questions with regards to the constructions and features of proteins and nucleic acids. M. V. Vol'kenshtein Leningrad, September, 1964 CONTENTS bankruptcy 1 Physics and Biology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Physics and existence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Molecular Physics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . three Molecular Biophysics ................................... nine Thermodynamics and Biology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . info concept. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . . . . . bankruptcy 2 Cells, Viruses, and Heredity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 . . . . . . . . The dwelling mobile. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 . . . . . . . . . . . phone department. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . . . . . . Viruses and Bacteriophages ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty four . . . . easy legislation of Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 . . . . . . . . . Mutations and Mutability ........ , ................. " . . . . 60 Genetics of micro organism and Phages " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty six . . . . . . bankruptcy three organic Molecules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy nine . . . . . . . . . . Amino Acids and Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy nine . . . . . . . . Asymmetry of organic Molecules ....................... 87 fundamental constitution of Proteins ............................ ninety four Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one hundred and one . . . . . . . . . . . . a few Biochemical approaches within the telephone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 . . . . bankruptcy four Physics of Macromolecules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 . . . . . . . . .

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In this particular example, the probability that a definite number will turn up on the die is POl = 1/6. The probability that a definite number will fall on the first and second die is Po = P01 POZ = 1/36 The information is 1= -KlogPo = -KlogPo1 - K log Poz where K is a proportionality factor. It is evident that I is proportional to the logarithm of the ratio of the number of possible events in the initial situation (before the casting of the die, I/Po = 36 possible results) to the number of actually realized events in the final situation (in this particular example, one event is 3 on the first die, 5 on the second).

8 These questions are discussed in Chapter 9 of this book. , the explanation of the coordination of behavior of the nucleus and cytoplasm of a divided cell, has been studied to a much lesser extent. This problem has been stated very clearly by Aleksandrov. 7 At present, we do not understand what physical-chemical factors induce the cell to divide and which molecular interaction determines the coordinated behavior of the entire ceIl during mitosis. The problem of evolution is related to mitosis in the foIlowing manner.

If such a rigid requirement is not included in the definition, then viruses can be regarded as living. In the case of viruses, their importance to science is certainly independent of the definition and we shall not pursue this question. VIRUSES AND BACTERIOPHAGES 45 The existence of viruses is absolutely linked to the existence of cells and organisms and, disregarding the definition, the evolutionary problem relative to viruses is quite obvious. In this problem, a number of various exclusive hypotheses have been proposed; we cannot examine these in detail.

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