By Bruce Alberts, Dennis Bray, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Visit Amazon's Keith Roberts Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Keith Roberts, , James D. Watson
A major, attractive (now in colour throughout), updated survey of phone biology for the introductory college direction. The textual content is split into 4 sections: advent to the mobile; molecular genetics; inner association of the phone; and cells of their social context. past variations have been pu
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Extra resources for Molecular Biology of the Cell 3E
The simplest way of achieving this is for daughter cells to remain together after each cell division. Even some procaryotic cells show such social behavior in a primitive form. Myxobacteria, for example, live in the soil and feed on insoluble organic molecules that they break down by secreting degradative enzymes. They stay together in loose colonies in which the digestive enzymes secreted by individual cells are pooled, thus increasing the efficiency of feeding (the "wolf-pack" effect). These cells indeed represent a peak of social sophistication among procaryotes, for when food supplies are exhausted, the cells aggregate tightly together and form a multicellular fruiting body (Figure 1-31), within which the bacteria differentiate into spores that can survive even in extremely hostile conditions.
The oldest metabolic pathways would have had to be anaerobic because there was no free oxygen in the atmosphere of the primitive earth. Glycolysis occurs in virtually every living cell and drives the formation of the compound adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which is used by all cells as a versatile source of chemical energy. Certain thioester compounds play a fundamental role in the energy-transfer reactions of glycolysis and in a host of other basic biochemical processes in which two organic molecules (a thiol and a carboxylic acid) are joined by a high-energy bond involving sulfur (Figure 1-15).
Originally, when life began on earth, there was probably little need for such elaborate metabolic reactions. Cells with relatively simple chemistry could survive and grow on the molecules in their surroundings. But as evolution proceeded, competition for these limited natural resources would have become more intense. Organisms that had developed enzymes to manufacture useful organic molecules more efficiently and in new ways would have had a strong selective advantage. In this way the complement of enzymes possessed by cells is thought to have gradually increased, generating the metabolic pathways of present organisms.