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By David McDowall

The department of the Kurdish humans between 4 glossy kingdom states--Iraq, Turkey, Syria and Iran--and their fight for nationwide rights were consistent issues of contemporary heart East background. The Kurdish lands were contested territory for plenty of centuries. during this specific heritage of the Kurds from the nineteenth century to the current day, McDowall examines the interaction of previous and new points of the fight, the significance of neighborhood rivalries inside of Kurdish society, the long-lasting authority of definite varieties of management and the failure of recent states to reply to the problem of Kurdish nationalism. Drawing generally on fundamental resources McDowall's booklet comes in handy for all who desire a larger realizing of the underlying dynamics of the Kurdish query.

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Both groups were in turn ' For this ancient social arrangement see E. I. J. Rosenthal, Political Thought in Medieval Islam (Cambridge, 1962). Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, The Nasirean Ethics, tr. G. M. Wickens (London, 1964). 2 For a more extensive treatment of the ay an and for bibliography see Kemal H. Karpat, 'The Land Regime, Social Structure, and Modernization in the Ottoman Empire', Beginnings of Modernization in the Middle East, William R. Polk and Richard L. ), (Chicago, 1968), pp. 69~90. See also article 'Ayan' in Encyclopaedia of Islam (new edition) and Herbert L.

I. H. Uzuncar§ili, Meshur Rumeli Ayanlanndan Tirsinikli Ismail, Yihkoglu Suleyman Agalar ve Alemdar Mustafa Pa fa (Istanbul, 1942) and Avdo Suceska, Ajani (Sarajevo, 1965). 3 For a view of esrq/s in Syria see Albert Hourani 'Ottoman Reform and the Politics of Notables', op. , Beginnings of Modernization . , pp. 41-68. THE OTTOMAN STATE, 1789-1908 29 subjected to external influences in varying degrees of intensity, and at different levels of activity, and responded independently and often in conflict with each other to the multifaced stimuli from outside.

A. Ubicini, Letters on Turkey, tr. Lady Easthorpe (London, 1856), pp. 339-44, reproduced in Issawi, op. , pp. 42—5 passim. THE OTTOMAN STATE, 1789-1908 33 the eighteenth century. It benefitted from some special economic safeguards and protectionist measures offered by the Ottoman state in its heydays. Consequently, the area developed itself economically and reached political independence before European industrial development necessitated economic and political dependence on the part of its markets and sources of agricultural commodities.

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