By I. A. Parinov
The major positive factors of high-temperature superconductors (HTSC) that outline their houses are intrinsic brittleness of oxide cuprates, the layered anisotropic constitution and the supershort coherence size. considering those beneficial properties, this treatise provides learn into HTSC microstructure and homes, and in addition explores the chances of optimization of the instruction strategies and superconducting compositions. The "composition-technique-experiment-theory-model," hired right here, assumes significant HTSC defectiveness and constitution heterogeneity and is helping to attract a entire photograph of recent representations of the microstructure, energy and the similar structure-sensitive homes of the fabrics thought of. particular realization is dedicated to the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and Y-Ba-Cu-O households, which presently provide the main promising functions. together with numerous illustrations and references, this monograph addresses scholars, post-graduate scholars and experts, enjoying the advance, practise and study of latest fabrics. the recent version were up to date intensively, specifically experimental investigations and modeling conductive and elastic homes of HTC superconductors were added.
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Additional resources for Microstructure and Properties of High-Temperature Superconductors
3 The Meissner Effect An external magnetic field which is lower than definite critical value, depended on the type of matter, does not penetrate into superconductor in the shape of infinite solid cylinder with axis parallel to the field direction and differs from zero only in 9 These vortices are called by Abrikosov vortices. Moreover, there are Josephson vortices which form in Josephson junctions (for example, in sandwich from two superconductors divided by thin dielectric layer). At the tunneling Cooper pairs through dielectric, the circulating current occurs which creates the vortex.
In the soft superconductors the pinning force is small and the critical current in practice is equal to the current in which the critical magnetic field on surface Hc1 creates on the sample surface. In the rigid superconductors, the pinning force is great the value of the critical current is determined by vortex frustration and may be very significant. Maximal critical currents demonstrate so-called composite superconductors in which owing to special technology is formed microstructure which maximally prevents to movement of the vortices.
The Inductrack MagLev System is developed in the USA. The Swissmetro Project (speed of 320 km/h) should be noted. The German Transrapid System is based on ‘‘classical’’ electromechanical technologies, requiring small air gap (\12 mm) between the vehicle and the truck. The Japanese MagLev is based on active superconductivity magnetic systems, permitting large air gap ([80 mm). The USA MagLev is based on passive superconductive magnets, also permitting large air gap ([80 mm). Swissmetro presents a unique example of MagLev systems: it is designed to work under partial vacuum (\10 kPa).