By Clemens Posten, Steven Feng Chen (eds.)
Antenna Mutants, Domestication, by means of Roberto Bassi
Heterotrophic Cultivation, via William McCaffrey
Chlorella for business purposes: Advances and potential, by means of Feng Chen
Carotinoide, via Carola Griehl
Engineering the algal chloroplast for synthesis of healing proteins, by way of Saul Purton
Design suggestions and up to date advancements of photobioreactors, by way of Clemens Posten
Efficiency of flat plate reactors, through Mario Tredici
Measuring modelling and keep watch over, by means of Olivier Bernard
Microalgae in existence aid platforms, through Klaus Slenzka
Heterotrophic oil creation, via Makato Watanabe
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Additional resources for Microalgae Biotechnology
Chlorella has been reported to remove a wide range of metals, including Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Ur, and Zn [109, 121–125]. Considering the acceptable growth and lipid production of Chlorella on wastewater, the integration of biofuel production with wastewater treatment is proposed [109, 111, 112, 114, 126]. 4 Chlorella as Feedstock for Biofuels Petroleum fuels are recognized to be unsustainable due to their depleting supplies and release of greenhouse gas . Renewable biofuels are promising alternatives to petroleum, among which biodiesel has attracted unprecedentedly increasing attention in recent years .
Biology and Industrial Applications of Chlorella … 11 Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of carotenoid biosynthesis in Chlorella. In the box is the astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway which is present in Chlorella zoﬁngiensis. IPP isopentenyl pyrophosphate, DMAPP dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, GGPP geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, PSY phytoene synthase, PDS phytoene desaturase, ZDS ζ-carotene desaturase, CRTISO carotene isomerase, LCYb lycopene β-cyclase, LCYe lycopene ε-cyclase, P450b-CHY cytochrome P450 β-hydroxylase, P450e-CHY cytochromeP450 ε-hydroxylase, CHYb β-carotene hydroxylase, BKT β-carotene ketolase, ZEP zeaxanthin epoxidase, VDE violaxanthin de-epoxidase, NXS neoxanthin synthase, AAT astaxanthin acyltransferase In order to increase lutein production, Shi and Chen  adopted a fed-batch culture strategy to grow C.
In contrast, heterotrophic cultivation of C. zoﬁngiensis feeding on an organic carbon source can boost algal growth as well as astaxanthin accumulation, eliminating the need for light and light-associated growth issues . It has been reported that heterotrophic cultures of C. zoﬁngiensis could achieve a comparable astaxanthin yield to H. pluvialis on a volumetric basis, much higher than that under photoautotrophic conditions [87, 88]. In this context, heterotrophic culture mode is regarded to be more feasible than autotrophic mode for astaxanthin production by C.