By Touraj Atabaki, Erik J. Zürcher
During this e-book, the authors hint the emergence of Atat?rk and Reza Shah in the course of the constitutional revolutions in Iran and the Ottoman Empire, which resulted in the creation of eu social types, the institution of dictatorship and of secularist reforms. In either situations, this led to hugely authoritarian, nationalist, and quasi-westernized states, and the character cult of the chief.
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Extra resources for Men of Order: Authoritarian Modernization Under Ataturk and Reza Shah
1, London: Ebtehaj, 1991. Makki, Tarikh-e Bistsaleh, vols. 5 and 6. 38 For the full text of the speech, see ‘Proceedings of the Majlis on Sunday 13 December, 1941’, in Kuhi Kermani, Az Shahrivar-e 1320 to Faje’eh-ye Azerbaijan, vol. 1. , pp. 222–29. 39 See Taqizadeh, Zendegi-ye Tufani, pp. 232–33. 40 See Khajeh Nuri, Bazigaran, pp. 188–91. 41 See his Sharh-e Zendegani-ye Man, vol. 3, Tehran: Zavvar, 1964. 42 See his Khaterat va Khatarat, p. 407. 43 For a documentation of the ofﬁcial persecution over the removal of the chadors, see Sazaman-e Madarek-e Farhangi-e Enqelab-e Eslami, Vaqaye‘-e Kashf-e Hejab, Tehran: Mo‘assese-ye Pazhuhesh-ha va Motle‘at-e Farhangi, 1992.
It is therefore clear that the Shah’s abdication was not inevitable, that is, he would not have had to abdicate had he enjoyed a certain amount of political legitimacy and a reasonable social base among his own people, especially as by then he had offered full cooperation to the Allies, who were physically present to ensure that he would keep his word. It was noted at the outset that, according to the general pattern of major change in Iranian history, the fall of an arbitrary state is followed by chaos.
The word itself eventually acquired so subversive a connotation that it was rarely used in the political vocabulary. 13 In Iran, the earliest reference to republicanism dates back to the early nineteenth century. ’16 For these munavvar al-fekrs, the main task was indeed how to impose the authority of the mellat through a constitutional government with a ‘parliamentary order’. 17 Amongst those Iranians who explicitly presented the diverse forms of government and endeavoured to give a detailed account of each of them was Mirza Aqa Khan Kermani, an enlightened essayist residing in Istanbul, where he published the renowned periodical Akhtar (The Star).