By Sergey V. Pasechnik
Masking a number of useful functions as but now not lined in any unmarried resource of knowledge, this monograph discusses the significance of viscous and elastic homes for purposes in either reveal and non-display applied sciences. The very recognized authors are significant avid gamers during this box of study and pay targeted consciousness right here to using liquid crystals in fiber optic units as utilized in telecommunication circuits.
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Extra info for Liquid Crystals: Viscous and Elastic Properties in Theory and Applications
The effect of a magnetic ﬁeld on the director orientation comes from the corresponding interaction energy density: 1 gh ¼ À mÀ1 DcðnBÞ2 ; 2 ð2:41Þ where Dc ¼ c|| À c? is the diamagnetic anisotropy (Dc > 0 in typical nematics). The elastic torque supports the initial director orientation, ﬁxed by the boundary conditions on the surface (S), which in case of a strong surface anchoring is njS ¼ no: As a result, a compromised director proﬁle appears that satisﬁes the condition of the minimum free energy: ð FV ¼ ðg þ g þ g Þdt; nj ¼ no; ð2:42Þ k V e H S j41 j 2 Physical Backgrounds for Practical Applications of Liquid Crystals 42 where gk ¼ 1/2[K11(div n)2 þ K22(n rot n)2 þ K33(n Â rot n)2] is the elastic energy density and Kii denote the elastic moduli; q0 ¼ 2p/R0 characterizes the natural chirality and is equal to zero in pure nematics.
The parameters of the liquid crystal mixtures for active matrix addressing applications include their high purity, which correlates with the value of the electrical conductivity (s < 10À12 to 10À14 WÀ1 cmÀ1), and a sufﬁciently high dielectric anisotropy to enable the proper values of the controlling voltages. 3. 4 Basic Physical Properties We will describe the most important physical parameters, which mainly determine electrooptic behavior of liquid crystal cells. According to existing phenomenological theories, we ﬁrst (1) introduce these parameters, then (2) illustrate their dependence on the concrete molecular structure and (3) show how to measure them and to develop new liquid crystalline mixtures, having optimal values for them.
The information presented below will be used in Chapter 7 elaborating on liquid crystal sensors of mechanical perturbations. 1 Couette and Poiseuille Flows in Isotropic Liquids and Liquid Crystals Nematic liquid crystals can be considered as anisotropic ﬂuids with the same mechanism of translational molecular motions as in isotropic liquids. So such property as high ﬂuidity referred to zero value of static shear elastic modules is similar in both cases. The main difference arises due to a long-range orientational order described in terms of a tensor order parameter Q ij.