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By N. I. Tolstaya

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Extra resources for Languages of Asia and Africa: The Panjabi Language

Sample text

A long s i de these imperative forms there are also the socalled polite or respectful forms , made by adding . -i to the ve rba l base for the second person singula r , a�d ( -vio) for the second person plural : . g. : tus i na bae��a = don ' t s i t down ! ,, The s ubj unc ti ve mood expresses pos s ib i l i ty , doub t , s upposition , uncertainty , des i re and so on . The s i mple s ub j un ctive forms are i dentical for both genders : I mae pa;-ha ( m . o r f . l may read S ingular P l ural mae kara asi karie tii.

G. g. g. g. panj ku about five s ao ku about a hundred koi das rupae about 10 rupees PRONOUNS Pan j ab i di s tinguishes pe rsonal , possessive , reflexive , demon­ s trative , in terrogative , indefini te , re lative and e�phatic pronouns . A l l pronouns have special oblique forms , but no vocative forms . Personal pronouns The firs t and second p ersonal pronouns are display ed in the fol lowing tabl e : Chapter 3 35 2nd person 1st person case s ing . pl . tu tusi as a , s a tae , tae , tusa , tus a , asa tu t uh; sing .

Female j a�� ( m . ) z imin&r (m . ) =. landowner Numbe r TWo numbers are dis tinguished - singular and plura l . g. vi llage/vi l lages crow/crows nai barber/barbers Mas culine nouns ending in form the di rect p l ura l : -a change this vowel into -e to 26 Chapter 3 horse horse s dog dogs Nouns of re lationship form an exception to this rul e , as do nouns of Sanskri t origin and a few of Iranian origin : bhra brothers leader neta leaders p i ta father p i ta fathers dada rive r daria brother bhra neta -= rivers Femi n ine nouns , apart from those ending in thei r direc t plural by adding the ending b hae� b i l lI dhI gal l s i s te r bhael}a cat b i l lIa = ma daughters gal la words katha Mati!

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