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37 Sec. 14 • The Nernst Relation taken into the sum; for example, one positive ion and one negative ion moving into the same volume obey the rule. The sum only constrains the average movement of charge and makes no other restriction. ) The sum L Zi1>i = 0 is equivalent to Kirchhoff's rule for electronic circuits and simply describes the steady-state flow of current without the buildup of charge. Applied to the perfect K membrane, Kirchhoff's rule is where the subscript 1 stands for CI and 2 stands for K.

Because of the biological range of concentrations, we usually use millimolar (mM) as the unit of ionic concentration. Let n stand for the number of moles per liter of water of a certain substance (usually given as a subscript). Then No. of moles KCI 1 liter H 20 No. " To a first approximation, the resistivity of an ionic solution is inversely proportional to the concentration of ions. 1 gives the resistivity of KCI at 25°C for three concentrations. Thus, the inverse relation between (! and n is not strictly valid; as n increases by a factor of 10, (!

Apply Patlak's (1960) derivation of Goldman's equation to a membrane separating two solutions of KCl at different concentrations. This derivation uses a rate of flux theory by Ussing. PROBLEM. Discuss an equivalent circuit for Goldman's equation. A general treatment of transport processes, equivalent circuits and electrical phenomena in membranes, with an historical viewpoint, may be found in a review by Teorell (1953). 21. An Example: The Glass Microelectrode Glass tubing, drawn to a fine tip less than 1 [Lm in external diameter and filled with a salt solution, has been used to record from cells too small to be entered by other means (Ling and Gerard, 1949).

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