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These vary in scope and complexity up to a fully fire engineered modelling of the fire and structural response based on finite element analysis. 1 DD ENV 1991-2-2. 2: Actions on structures exposed to fire. British Standards Institution, London, 1996. 2 DD ENV 1993-1-2: 2001. 2: Structural fire design. British Standards Institution, London, 2001. 3 DD ENV 1994-1-2: 2002. 2: Structural fire design. British Standards Institution, London, 2002. 4 BS 5950: Structural use of steelwork in building Part 8: Code of practice for fire resistant design.

In order to use the published design information it will often be necessary for the user to be familiar with simple calculation methods. The guidance is normally based either on the load ratio/limiting temperature method or on the calculation of moment resistance. 10), will generally achieve 15 minutes fire resistance. It is possible for the fire resistance of unprotected downstand beams to be increased to 30 minutes, but this typically involves ‘overdesigning’ the section at other limit states so that it is stressed to a lower level at the fire limit state.

Knowledge of the fire resistance of concrete elements is generally based on standard testing. In a large number of furnace tests on fully loaded reinforced concrete members, failure occurred when the temperature in the reinforcement reached around 500-550°C and for prestressed members 400-450°C. From these tests the cover to the main reinforcement was considered to be the controlling factor. e. the distance from the fire exposed face to the centroid of the reinforcing. 5. 8. 5. The fire resistance of concrete elements is met by concrete width (in the case of beams, ribs, columns and walls), thickness (in the case of slabs) and cover to the reinforcement.

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