By Dilip Hiro
Publish yr note: First released 2009
The former Soviet republics of valuable Asia include a sprawling, politically pivotal, densely populated, and richly cultured quarter of the realm. during this accomplished new therapy, popular political author and historian Dilip Hiro areas the politics, peoples, and cultural historical past of this serious quarter firmly into the context of present foreign concentration.
Read Online or Download Inside Central Asia: A Political and Cultural History of Uzbekistan, Turkimenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzsan, Tajikisan, Turkey and Iran (UK Edition) PDF
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Additional info for Inside Central Asia: A Political and Cultural History of Uzbekistan, Turkimenistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzsan, Tajikisan, Turkey and Iran (UK Edition)
The revival of private trading as part of the New Economic Policy also helped to regain Muslim confidence, as commerce in the region was in the hands of Muslims. These measures diminished the appeal of the Basmachi movement, which had its own internal problems—the chief among them being the lack of a centralized political-military command, which enabled the Red Army to overpower the Basmachis. But the arrival of General Enver Pasha, a former Turkish war minister, saved the resistance movement from extinction.
Carving up the region into separate units broadly along ethnic-linguistic lines stemmed as much from administrative as political and ideological considerations. With Stalin ascendant, following the death of Lenin in January 1924, his theory on nationalities acquired an official stamp, and he began implementing it. According to Lenin, nationalism (as a form of social relations) emerged during the early period of capitalism as a response to national-social oppression caused by capitalism. However, the later period of capitalist development, dominated by monopoly capital, spawned a trend towards internationalism.
In June 1929, therefore, the USSR’s 48 / I N S I D E C E N T R A L A S I A Central Executive Committee decided to upgrade the Tajik ASSR to a Union republic, followed by the transfer of Leninabad to it. Finally, upon the endorsement by the Congress of the Soviets of Tajikistan, Tajikistan became a Union republic. Kazakhs and Kyrgyzes, the two other nations of the region, however, had to wait until after the mass collectivization of cereal, cotton, and cattlebreeding farms had been virtually completed in their autonomous republics (within the RSFSR) in 1934 to see their territories upgraded to Union republics—Kazakh SSR and Kyrgyz SSR—by the new constitution of 1936.