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Extra info for Input.Output Inc - I-O.System.2000.Central.Electronics
4 Work function of W(l12) as a function of adsorbed sodium and oxygen A: Na adsorption followed by 0 2 adsorption; B: the reverse. equation (1). In summary: (1) Metal-semiconductor and semiconductor-semiconductor contacts lead to charge separation so that a positive net charge accumulates at the surface of one partner of contact and a negative net charge accumulates at the surface of the other. These net charge densities are between 0 and 10 1 3 e/cm 2 , depending on the electronic bulk and surface properties of the materials in contact.
In experiments in vacuo, by far the largest proportion of charge backflow is due to tunnelling which is discussed in some detail below. Tunnelling at a parallel plane contact For simplicity, we look at a parallel plane contact between a metal, on the one hand, and a semiconductor or polymer, on the other. Upon separation of the two bodies, that is if their distance z is increased, equilibrium conditions continue to prevail. Their nature depends on the density D 8 of the surface states. If D 8 is sufficiently small for the equation to be valid, a is independent of z.
Charge neutrality is achieved by counter charges of opposite sign forming a cylindrical space charge region around the dislocation. The total charge at the electrodes amounted to some 10 10 e/cm 2 . The sign of the charge depended on the nature and doping of the crystal. In alkali halides most of the defect structure is of the Schottky type; it is primarily caused by equal numbers of cation and anion vacancies. With a dislocation moving through the lattice, there is a tendency for cation vacancies to be left behind.