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By Tuncay Zorlu

Ottoman naval expertise underwent a metamorphosis below the guideline of Sultan Selim III. New different types of crusing warships akin to - and three-decked galleons, frigates and corvettes started to dominate the Ottoman fleet, rendering the galley-type oared ships out of date. this era observed technological strategies equivalent to the adoption of the systematic copper sheathing of the hulls and bottoms of Ottoman warships from 1792-93 onwards and the development of the 1st dry dock within the Golden Horn.

The altering face of the Ottoman army was once facilitated through the impact of the British, Swedish and French in modernizing either the shipbuilding area and the behavior of naval war. via such measures as education Ottoman shipbuilders, heavy reliance on support from overseas powers gave solution to a brand new trajectory of modernization. utilizing this proof, Zorlu argues that even though the Ottoman Empire was once a huge and sleek autonomous strength during this interval, a few technological dependence on Europe remained.

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It was also used during the caulking process. 35 Raw Iron (Âhen-i Hâm) In the late eighteenth century, iron, both raw and processed, was used in many forms in the Ottoman navy. 38 DEVELOPMENTS IN OTTOMAN SHIPBUILDING TECHNOLOGY 21 The Imperial Mint (Darphâne-i Âmire) also stored, processed and delivered iron when the need arose. 46 Nails and bolts (Mismâr and Civata) used in naval works Nails were produced by ironsmiths by smelting of a variety of substances. Nails made of wood, iron, copper and a copper–zinc mixture might be used, depending on the structure of the ship.

30 To give an idea about the required timber and its types for a new galleon of 55,5 zira constructed on 15 November 1783, some 500 pieces of timber were needed. 31 As for the system of measurements used in the wood trade and in the building of naval ships, zirâ, arflun, kadem, kar›fl, kulaç and umk were the basic units. Out of these measures, zirâ and arflun were equal units of length, while kadem was for width. 32 It is important to note that some French measures of length were also used. 33 Heath (Funda) Consisting of various types of small trees, heath was burned to dry out boats, galleys and galleons when their hulls were first constructed.

It also distinguishes the countries to which the same has been exported. Here the average price of wrought brass exported in the course of 1799 appears, by the Declarations of the Merchants Exporters, to 38 INNOVATION AND EMPIRE IN TURKEY have been £. 7. 14s. 8d. per cwt, and accordingly, at that rate, the total value of the brass of 77,033 cwt 3q. 16lb. was £. 595,728. 15s. 5d. The plated ware was always entered by the merchants ad valorem, consequently the nominal value and the declared value were the same.

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