By Michael Peters
Interpreting, within the widest feel, the adjustments in political philosophy that experience happened in Western capitalist states because the early Eighties, this e-book specializes in the advent of neo-liberal ideas within the mixed quarter of social and schooling coverage. New Zealand provides a paradigm instance of the neo-liberal shift in political philosophy. From constituting the "social laboratory" of the Western international within the Thirties by way of social welfare provision, New Zealand has develop into the neo-liberal "experiment" of the absolutely "marketised" society within the Nineties. opposed to the theoretical historical past of academic thought and perform, this publication examines neo-liberalism and its evaluations as responses to the so-called hindrance of the welfare nation and argues for a reformulated severe social coverage within the postmodern . The conclusions approximately social coverage drawn by means of the authors should be generalized to related events in different Western capitalist nations.
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Extra info for Individualism And Community: Education And Social Policy In The Postmodern Condition (New Prospects Series, 4)
To be sure, the actual influence of party leaders and governmental decision makers on this process of agenda formation is a sophisticated empirical question that requires more study. Even in the absence of more detailed findings, however, the role of policy-planning organizations and the reform strategy—conservative as well as liberal— raises serious questions for democratic government and the traditional understanding of the public’s role in it. 34 Frank Fischer The underpinnings of a more convincing interpretation of the role of these think tanks can be found in the theories put forward by William Domhoff (1979, 1987) and Thomas Dye (1987), who see policy-planning organizations serving as central coordinating mechanisms of highly structured elite policy networks.
6 One may see dead trees as the product of natural stress caused by drought, cold, or wind, or one may see them as victims of pollution. The acid rain narrative labels the dead trees as victims of pollution, and thus dead trees become a political problem. This example highlights the changing perception of the role of language in political life. In the positivist tradition in the social sciences, language was seen as a means, as a neutral system of signs that described the world. With the coming of the postpositivist social sciences, however, language lost this neutral status and itself became problematized.
Whereas policy ideas traditionally made their way onto the agenda through public opinion and party debate, today they increasingly emerge in policy-planning organizations quite independently of public discussion. Thomas Ferguson and Joel Rogers (1981) documented the degree to which the policy positions of conservative policy-planning organizations during the Reagan years were advanced independently of changes in public opinion and open political deliberation. Missing from conventional explanations, then, is the critical fact that the agenda for policy consideration is increasingly shaped and approved by the private deliberations of elites outside the government before political parties and formal policymakers become actively involved in the process.