By Jane Taylor
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Why did the Ottoman Empire input the 1st global struggle in past due October 1914, months after the war's devastations had develop into transparent? have been its leaders 'simple-minded,' 'below-average' contributors, because the doyen of Turkish diplomatic heritage has argued? Or, as others have claimed, did the Ottomans input the battle simply because conflict Minister Enver Pasha, dictating Ottoman judgements, was once in thrall to the Germans and to his personal expansionist desires?
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Additional resources for Imperial Istanbul : a traveller's guide, includes Iznik, Bursa and Edirne
Between Topkapl and Edirne Kapl the walls - known here as the 31 I M P E R I A L I S TA N B U L Mesoteichion, the middle wall - drop down into a valley; but where once the river Lycus flowed, is now the Adnan Menderes Buivan, largest and newest of the roads in and out of t he city. This section of wall was always the most vulnerable, for the land rises immediately outside it making it the one point where any attacker would have the advantage of height over the defenders . It was here that the fatal breach in the walls was made by the Turks in the early hours of 29 May 1 45 3 .
Only by increasing the tribute, with further increases every five years or so, was a fragile peace with Persia maintained . Justinian' s aim of creating a unified church within the unified Empire meant that an accommodation had to be reached not only with the orthodox Papacy in Rome which claimed supreme authority in the Christian church , but also with the Monophysite Patriarchates of Antioch and Alexandria who showed a disturbing enthusiasm for independence . He himself was orthodox, but his own wife , the powerful Theodora , was a Monophysite .
The Emperor Isaac Angelus , who built the tower named after him, was deposed and blinded in 1 1 95 after ten years' rule, and was immured in 34 THE WALLS OF THEODOSIUS the Prison o f Anemas, a place much favoured for the incarceration and mutilation of unpopular Emperors . The final stretch of walls, visible from the terrace to the east of the two towers , is again double - the wails of Leo and Hel'aciius - and form a kind of citadel at the northern extremity of the land walls . The inner one is the older and stronger, built by the energetic Emperor Heraclius in 627 in a bid to keep out the Persians and Avars, both of whom were attacking the city .