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By R. Bruce Hoadley

With a unadorned eye or microscope it is possible for you to to spot one hundred eighty hardwoods, softwoods amd tropical woods through following the easy suggestions defined during this textual content.

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They look like circular targets or doughnuts when viewed radially. Since they are always present, their occurrence is lines. Because spiral checking occurs among a variety of coni­ not helpful for identification. But the number of these pits across fers, it is not particularly useful as an identification feature; it is mentioned here to avoid confusion with spiral thickenings. a radial wall of earlywood tracheids can be very meaningful (see the photos on the facing page). For example, in larch, pits are Spiral checking can result from severe seasoning stresses and is commonly paired; in spruce, they are usually single; and in red­ most common in conifers with thick-walled tracheids; it is also associated with an abnormality known as reaction wood, which is described in Chapter 6.

In The presence of resin canals provides an initial basis for sepa­ some instances, however, the canal is filled with yellowish or rating the pines, spruces, larches and Douglas-fir from the bal­ amber resin in a liquid state. In other instances, the resin may ance of the conifers. In some species, resin canals are readily permeate surrounding tracheids or migrate onto the adjacent visible with the naked eye, but the smallest resin canals in other species can be seen only with hand-lens magnification.

Half-bordered pit pairs (B) occur between ray tracheids and ray paren­ chyma. Simple pit pairs (C) are found be­ tween ray parenchyma cells. (2S0x) RT NARROW RAY TRACHEIDS IN HEMLOCK RP (Rl) In hemlock, ray tracheids may be difficult to see, sometimes appearing only faintly compared with ray parenchyma cells (RP). II RAYS t----- 25 D entate ray tracheids ( D RT) ...... ----- Ray parenchyma ( RP) t----t----- D entate ray trac heids ( D RT) DENTATE RAY TRACHEIDS IN HARD Ray parenchyma ( RP) PINES In hard pines, ray tracheids have jagged inner walls and are called dentate ray tra­ cheids (DR1).

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