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By R. Zeikowitz

Zeikowitz explores either putting forward and denigrating discourses of male same-sex wish in assorted fourteenth-century chivalric texts and describes the sociopolitical forces motivating these discourses. He makes an attempt to dethrone conventional heteronormative perspectives via drawing realization to culturally normative 'queer' hope. Zeikowitz articulates attainable homoeroticized spectatorial interactions among male readers and imagined or genuine version knights, dramatized money owed of same-sex unions, and collectively stimulating - or competing - forces of homosocial and heterosexual hope in chivalric texts, akin to Charny's booklet of Chivalry , Sir Gawain and the fairway Knight , and Troilus and Criseyde . He additionally examines how intimate male bonds are rendered sodomitically-inflected, risky attachments in chronicle narratives of the reigns of Edward II and Richard II.

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Extra resources for Homoeroticism and Chivalry: Discourses of Male Same-sex Desire in the 14th Century

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29 He brings together here the two dominant features of ideal friendship: intimacy and permanency. Permanence is implied because ideal friendship is based on the union of two virtuous men, and CHIVALRIC BONDS AND THE IDEALS OF FRIENDSHIP 31 nowhere does Cicero warn that good men could "lose" their virtue. The union Cicero envisions is also based on mutual love and affection, and thus he is describing a sort of same-sex marriage. For Aristotle and Cicero, in a perfect friendship both partners lead a virtuous life and are intimate with each other--each one viewing the other as a second self.

When Galehot is about to follow Lancelot's wishes and pretend to take Arthur (after Lancelot, in Galehot's armor, defeats Arthur's men), Lancelot reminds Galehot of the solemn union between them:"couent me tenes" [keep your covenant with me]. 69 The inclusiveness of their relationship is apparent here; Galehot's bond to Lancelot is stronger than any tie he might have to another knight. Although Lancelot does not illustrate the same selflessness toward Galehot as Galehot does to him, he does clearly love and appreciate his friend: Et quant li boins cheualiers en uoit aler galahot & faire si grant meschief pour lui si quide bien & dist que nus si boins amis ne si veritable compaignon not il onques mais si en a si grant pitie que il en souspire del cuer aual & pleure des iex de Ia teste sous le hiaume & dist entre ses dens biax sire diex qui porra ce deseruir.

Galehot's love for Lancelot is the determining factor in this budding relationship because, if one assumes Galehot is honest in admitting that he is not exceptionally powerful, then the only thing he is qualified to offer, and which Lancelot apparently feels is worthwhile accepting, is his professed love. The treatises on friendship suggest that an ideal bond develops gradually over time. The Prose LAncelot illustrates one way this process may occur, how a friendship evolves from one characterized by one-sided love--or attraction-to a more ideal union in which both partners love each other with equal intensity.

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