By David W. Gaier, Editor
Directions for Roving defense Inspections in Public Venues utilizing Explosives Detection canine grew out of the March 2004 synchronized bombing assault of commuter trains in Madrid, Spain. those directions have been built by way of the T&DI job Committee on Roving safeguard Inspections following a teleconference backed via the Transportation and improvement Institute of ASCE, the Transit criteria Consortium, and the Infrastructure safeguard Partnership. those instructions have been equipped on top practices for safety in mass transit, and extended to incorporate different public venues. This e-book deals the present taking into account specialists during this box and particular directions for an procedure that covers unannounced and widespread inspections of constructions, amenities, and public areas, for that reason taking away the necessity to check out each venue in the course of each hour of operation. This booklet contains the next sections: definitions; occasions; auspices, goal and merits; and coverage. it is going to be worthy for these serious about transportation and public security and safety
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In the example above, the specifier has been precise and knows exactly what to expect from his selection in terms of appearance and quality. Manufacturers spend a great deal of time and money in developing new products and/or improving products for which they usually hold patents. This does not stop their competitors from launching very similar products that are cheaper because they have incurred less research and development costs. Whether these alternative products are cheaper because they are of inferior quality is a point for debate, but one worth bearing in mind because there may be considerable pressure to change the specified product during the tendering and building phase of the contract.
Performance specifying and compulsory competitive tendering are seen as a way around the problem. However, proprietary specifications are widely used and for very good reasons. For example, the recent trend towards the use of supply-chain management techniques necessitates a working arrangement with chosen suppliers. Although performance standards are used, this arrangement naturally leads to the specification of proprietary products from a particular manufacturer in the chain. Over time, the designers and manufacturers can work together to improve standards and reduce costs, but such arrangements make it difficult for others to compete.
It is a sad fact that very few projects are perfect: many are flawed by poorly expressed requirements. With the advent of computers and digital information, one could be forgiven for thinking that inadequate information would become a thing of the past, but many within the industry have noted a significant increase in the quantity of information provided and a steady decline in its quality. Unfortunately, computers make it easy to transfer errors from one document to another very quickly. But it would be misleading to blame the technology.