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By Gili S. Drori, John W. Meyer, Hokyu Hwang

This publication explores quite a few dimensions of the developments of enlargement, formalization, and standardization of organizing around the world through exploring such organizational legacies as accounting, enterprise administration, company social accountability, and function benchmarks. that includes contributions from fashionable teachers, the publication argues that those techniques might be attributed to globalization and to its particular trends of universalism, explanation, and upward thrust of the fashionable concept of the strongly bounded and purposive social actor.

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Organizations arise in the interstices that were informally arranged, and familial, ethnic, or loose working arrangements are now recast into the framework of the modern organization. And organizations develop in areas not previously structured at all, as with many aspects of international life now activated by associations (Boli and Thomas 1997, 1999). Further, newly emerging social concerns, such as environmental issues or digital divides, become structured in this formal and organized way from their inception (Frank et al.

Organization thus arises and dominates because it is a more eYcient and eVective way to produce and control important activities. From this point of view, organizations are very real and muscular technical enterprises: sharply bounded from their environments, tightly controlled and coordinated, and driven by logics of eYciency. The high form of this vision, of a closed and stable system, is impressively laid out in Thompson (1967), relying on features of scientiWc management (Taylor 1911), mechanistic operations (Burns and Stalker 1961), goal-directed systems (PfeVer 1982), and obviously Weber’s conception of bureaucracy.

Seen macroscopically, there is a great deal of irrationality in the rationalization of the modern system. 22 Introduction N OT E S 1. Data on the total number of listed domestic companies were compiled from the World Bank, World Development Indicators (WDI) database. 2. Data on the total number of listed corporations were compiled from the State of California’s Franchise Tax Board, Economic and Statistical Research Bureau. 3. 1. 4. World population data were compiled from US Census Bureau, International Database; world GDP, national GDP, and national population data were compiled from WDI database; data on California’s gross state product and population were compiled from RAND Corporation’s files.

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