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By Julia Lodge

Studying this booklet as an intro to the realm of PCR and a venture entailing site-directed mutagenesis was once tremendous beneficial from everything from developing a PCR cycle and what plasmids are higher for cloning or expression to information of a metamorphosis and protein expression options. total, a superb e-book to have within the lab!

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Some scientific publications have recently decided not to italicize the first part of the name of restriction enzymes, at the moment this has not been generally accepted; we will use the established nomenclature for restriction enzymes in this book. produced by the bacterium E. 3). It cuts DNA whenever the sequence GAATTC occurs. 1). 2: there are a number of points that you should notice about the sequence cut by EcoRI. The sequence, which is recognized and cut by the enzyme, is 6 bp long; we say that EcoRI has a six base pair recognition site.

The net effect of this will be that changes in the control and coding regions will be less common than those in the junk DNA. Therefore when you compare genomes from different organisms the sequences of interest are highlighted as regions of sequence similarity against the junk DNA background. An example of the power of comparative biology comes from studies on the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes. e. it is one eighth the size of the human genome. The compact size is due to the presence of very little repetitive DNA and the small size of its introns.

However, viral genomes consist of either RNA or DNA which can be either single- or double-stranded. Since viruses are obligate intracellular parasites they do not need to encode all the functions required by a free-living organism and accordingly they typically have very small genomes. The genome sizes of viruses, which may infect bacteria or eukaryotic cells, vary from 2 kb to 700 kb. It is beyond the scope of this book to discuss the complexities of viral genomes. However, viruses have been exploited throughout the history of gene cloning and as such two key viruses will be discussed below.

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