Download Fundamentals of the Physics of Solids: Structure and by Solyom J. PDF

By Solyom J.

This e-book is the 1st of a three-volume sequence written through an identical writer that goals to convey a entire and self-contained account of the sizeable box of solid-state physics. It is going a ways past so much vintage texts within the presentation of the homes of solids and experimentally saw phenomena, besides the fundamental options and theoretical tools used to appreciate them and the fundamental positive aspects of varied experimental techniques.

the 1st quantity bargains with the atomic and magnetic constitution and the dynamics of solids, the second one with these electrical houses that may be understood by way of the one-particle approximation, and the 3rd with the consequences as a result of interactions and correlations between electrons.

This quantity covers 4 significant themes. After a short heritage of solid-state physics, the introductory half offers the class of condensed levels, describes the fundamental positive aspects of atoms as development blocks of solids, and analyzes how atoms bind jointly to shape solids.

The moment half bargains with structural points. The symmetries of crystalline solids and their results are lined in detail.

Deviations from crystalline order both as a result of defects or in type of quasicrystalline or noncrystalline constructions also are mentioned. The 3rd half is dedicated to the theoretical description and experimental commentary of lattice vibrations. eventually, magnetism as a result of localized magnetic moments is handled either phenomenologically and quantum mechanically.

The textual content offers considerable fabric for upper-level undergraduate and graduate classes. The publication additionally serves as a helpful reference for researchers within the box of condensed topic physics.

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Additional info for Fundamentals of the Physics of Solids: Structure and Dynamics

Example text

Darwin, 1928. 38 3 The Building Blocks of Solids ∇2 (1/r) ∝ δ(r). The most important is the third, spin-dependent term, which gives a correction that depends on the spin as well as the orbital motion of the electron. This is the spin–orbit interaction term. e. depends only on r = |r|, and so ∇U (r) = dU (r) r . 33) is obtained. The term in parentheses is recognized as the orbital angular momentum operator of the electron, l = r × p. Now if σ is replaced by the electron spin operator, the expression takes the usual form Hs–o = 2 2m2e c2 1 dU (r) l · s.

Suppose the ionic positions are known; then the potential generated by them at point r is given by N Uion (r) = − i=1 Zi e˜2 . 11) Electrons move in this field. The great difficulty is that the mutual Coulomb interactions of the electrons cannot be written as a one-particle potential. Therefore approximation methods are necessary to study these interactions. As we proceed, we shall encounter more and more sophisticated methods. 2 Effects of Applied Fields Solid-state physics is concerned not only with the properties of solids in thermal equilibrium: much more effort goes into the investigation of their behavior under external perturbations.

The difference between smectic A and C phases is that the molecular axes are perpendicular to the plane of the layer in the former but not in the latter. In this case the average tilt angle in subsequent layers may be identical, reversed (giving a fishbone-like pattern of two neighboring layers), or it may even change periodically. (a) (b) (c) Fig. 6. Side view of the molecular arrangement in different smectic liquid crystals. (a): the smectic A phase; (b) and (c): two variants of the smectic C phase Alternatively, one can say that smectic A and C liquid crystals are like solids in one direction but behave like liquids in the two perpendicular directions.

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