By JenÃ¶ SÃ³lyom
This ebook is the 1st of a three-volume sequence written through a similar writer that goals to carry a finished and self-contained account of the immense box of solid-state physics. It is going a long way past so much vintage texts within the presentation of the homes of solids and experimentally saw phenomena, in addition to the fundamental options and theoretical equipment used to appreciate them and the fundamental positive aspects of assorted experimental techniques.
the 1st quantity bargains with the atomic and magnetic constitution and the dynamics of solids, the second one with these electrical homes that may be understood when it comes to the one-particle approximation, and the 3rd with the results because of interactions and correlations between electrons.
This quantity covers 4 significant issues. After a quick background of solid-state physics, the introductory half offers the type of condensed stages, describes the fundamental beneficial properties of atoms as construction blocks of solids, and analyzes how atoms bind jointly to shape solids.
The moment half offers with structural features. The symmetries of crystalline solids and their outcomes are coated in detail.
Deviations from crystalline order both because of defects or in type of quasicrystalline or noncrystalline constructions also are mentioned. The 3rd half is dedicated to the theoretical description and experimental remark of lattice vibrations. eventually, magnetism because of localized magnetic moments is handled either phenomenologically and quantum mechanically.
The textual content presents considerable fabric for upper-level undergraduate and graduate classes. The e-book additionally serves as a invaluable reference for researchers within the box of condensed topic physics.
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Extra info for Fundamentals of the physics of solids
6) 4π 0 It will make many expressions appear as if they were written in Gaussian rather than rationalized units. For example, using this notation the electronic part of the Hamiltonian takes the form 1 E. Schrödinger, 1926. Erwin Schrödinger (1887–1961) shared the Nobel Prize with Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902–1984) in 1933 “for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory”. 7) i=j which is commonly used in the literature even today. Up to this point, the above Hamiltonian can equally well describe a gas, a plasma, a liquid, or a solid.
In materials possessing both smectic and nematic phases the former appears at a lower temperature, indicating that the smectic phase is more ordered than the nematic. When temperature is increased, a phase transition occurs: the layers disappear, and the symmetries of the nematic phase appear. Full translational symmetry is restored. If individual layers are considered as rigid structural units, the smectic phase can be pictured as one in which these units are arranged regularly 11 From the Greek words for soap, σμηγμα (smegma) and smeared, layered, σμηκτ oς (smektos).
On the other hand, the axes of the hexagons are aligned over long distances, so long-range orientational order is observed. (a) (b) Fig. 7. Molecular arrangement in two liquid-crystalline phases: (a) smectic B phase; (b) discotic columnar phase Hexagonal-type structures can also be formed by disk-shaped molecules. In the discotic columnar phase (or simply columnar phase) such ﬂat molecules are stacked, forming a column. As shown in Fig. 7(b), these columns are packed locally hexagonally to ensure eﬃcient space ﬁlling.