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By C. Sah

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Such instruments only indicate the proper rms value for sine shaped signals. Some voltmeters indicate the "true rms" value of the input voltage. A true rms meter functions differently from those described above. Some of them use a thermal converter to directly obtain the rms value of the input signal. The indication is true for almost all types of input voltages. 3 Signal spectra Any periodic signal can be divided into a series of sinusoidal sub-signals. If the time of one period is T, then the frequencies of all the sub-signals will be multiples of 1/T.

Linearity involves using superposition to facilitate calculations. In a network with several sources a current or voltage is found by separately calculating the contribution derived from each such source. ∑ they have constant coefficients which do not change over the course of time because it is assumed that the parameters of the network elements are constant 40 ∑ Electronic instrumentation (like the resistance value). Linearity and coefficient constancy lead to the preservation of frequency: sinusoidal signals retain their shape and frequency.

Furthermore, we can apply the voltage-current relations of the three elements: i1 = 1 R i2 = C i3 = 1 L (v1 - vk ) d (v2 - vk ) dt Ú (v3 - vk )dt If the three currents are eliminated from these four equations this will result in: vk + L dv k R dt + LC d 2vk dt 2 = v3 + L dv1 R dt + LC d 2v2 dt 2 The current direction can be randomly chosen. d(vk - v2)/dt. 3. An example of the application of Kirchhoff's rule for currents. In a network the relationships between voltages and currents are apparently expressed as differential equations.

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