Download Fractional Statistics and Anyon Superconductivity by Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics Frank Wilczek PDF

By Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics Frank Wilczek

This choice of articles via experts in fractional facts levels from describing elaborate ordered states of condensed subject - and suggesting new ones - to editing the elemental rules of black gap physics.

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Extra resources for Fractional Statistics and Anyon Superconductivity

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In both tJ,ese cases, the low-energy excitations consist of slow modulations in the direction of th~ local l&1ag&etization. ) Such excitations are known as spin waves in the particular context of spin systems, or gf>nerically as Nsmbu-Goldstone bosons. As the wavelength of such a modulation becomes infinite, its eneTgy goes to zero. Truly uniform modulations cost nothing, since the states with different uniform directions of magnetization are related by symmetry, and are therefore degenerate with the ground atate.

First, there are situations in which one cannot deform all paths to the identity. This occurs, by definition, on spaces that are not simply connected. \ons in which the parallel transport is not. a continuous function of the path, or is ill-defined for some paths. An important class of examples concerns flux tubes in the Higgs phase of gauge theories. What about screening? Isn't the Higgs phase famous for screening charge? One should appreciate that the screening occurring in the Higgs mechanism is not a mystical process, but essentially a special case of the homely phenomenon of dielectric polarization as occurs in ordinary dielectrics or plasmas.

Statistics, according to our other interpretations. , for fluxes which are integral multiples of the fundamental flux quantum ~, or· equivalently when the angular momentum is quantized to integer values, or equivalently for bosons and fermions. 23 c. Finally there is the angular dependence of the cross-section, which again has a deeply geometric origin and important physical meaning. Note that this dependence is singular in the forward direction (it goes as the square root of the Rutherford factor in Coulomb scattering).

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