By Kieko Matteson
This ebook investigates the commercial, strategic, and political value of forests in early smooth and sleek Europe and exhibits how struggles over this very important common source either formed and mirrored the ideologies and results of France's lengthy progressive interval. till the mid-nineteenth century, wooden used to be the significant gas for cooking and heating and the first fabric for production around the world and comprised each that you can think of part of business, household, army, and maritime task. Forests additionally supplied crucial pasturage. those multifaceted values made forests the topic of ongoing battles for keep an eye on among the crown, landowning elites, and peasantry, for whom liberty intended keeping their rights to forest commons. targeting Franche-Comté, France's easternmost province, the ebook explores the fiercely contested improvement of state-centered conservation and administration from 1669 to 1848. In emphasizing the environmental underpinnings of France's seismic sociopolitical upheavals, it appeals to readers drawn to revolution, rural existence, and common-pool-resource governance
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Extra resources for Forests in revolutionary France : conservation, community, and conflict 1669-1848
See also discussion in Robert Layton, Anthropology and History in Franche-Comté: A Critique of Social Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 83–84. According to Layton, some villages adopted the practice of selling affouage timber and apportioning the revenues directly to inhabitants from 1969 forward, but by 1995 they were no longer doing so. This analysis is well established among social scientists of Asia and Africa. Most recently, see Oliver Wapulumuka, Conservation Song: A History of Peasant-State Relations and the Environment in Malawi, 1860–2000 (Cambridge: White Horse Press, 2011); Thaddeus Sunseri, Wielding the Ax: State Forestry and Social Conﬂict in Tanzania, 1820–2000 (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2009); and Tim Forsyth and Andrew Walker, Forest Guardians, Forest Destroyers: The Politics of Environmental Knowledge in Northern Thailand (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2008).
Guards were usually paid from the ﬁnes they collected, but they had little incentive to levy them if they could cut better deals with inhabitants. By the late seventeenth century, most grueries were closed due to ineffectiveness or endured only as pretexts for personnel to collect bribes and conduct illicit timber sales. François Vion-Delphin, “Les forêts du Nord de la Franche-Comté à la veille de la Révolution d’après les cahiers de doléances des bailliages d’Amont et de Baume,” in La Franche-Comté à la veille de la Révolution, ed.
36 As emphatic as these edicts were in writing, however, on-the-ground enforcement fell short. 37 More effective, at least from seigneurs’ perspective, were systems of land division known as cantonnement, triage, and tiercement, which conferred control of a portion of a woods upon usagères while liberating 35 36 37 Ordonnances de tres-haut, tres-illustre, puissant prince et seigneur, Frideric . . Duc de Vvirtemberg & Teck, Comte de Montbéliard, Touchant les bois et Forests [sic] (Montbéliard: Jacques Foillet, 1595).