By Tao Le, Kendall Krause, Vinita Takiar
The crucial spouse to your first years of scientific school
First relief for the fundamental Sciences: common rules, 2e will give you a great figuring out of the elemental technological know-how ideas with which all clinical scholars has to be normal. the second one variation has been thoroughly revised to add a extra student-friendly and approachable textual content, an up to date high-yield fast overview part, new photos, and more.
- Delivers complete single-source assurance of the whole first yr of scientific college
- Includes vital history fabric so much different reports omit
- Covers the high-yield themes and proof demonstrated at the USMLE
- Offers full-color photographs, studying aids, tables, and concise textual content to streamline your research and assist you excel in coursework and at the USMLE
- Provides a framework for realizing anatomy and histology, embryology, behavioral technology, biochemistry, microbiology, immunology, pathology, and pharmacology
- Mirrors the desk of content material of First relief for the USMLE Step 1 to facilitate research
- Written via scholars who aced the USMLE and reviewed by means of most sensible faculty
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Additional info for First Aid for the Basic Sciences, General Principles
Submucosa: Vascular and lymphatic supply. Muscularis externa: Mechanical mixing, dissociation, and propulsion. Serosa: Protection. Mucosa The intestinal mucosa, the absorption barrier of the alimentary canal, is composed of polarized epithelial cells specialized in transport and uses several molecular and structural adaptations that allow it to efficiently extract nutrients from food. Structurally, the mucosa has four adaptations that increase the absorptive surface area: n n n n Plicae circulares (circular folds, or valves of Kerckring) Intestinal villi Intestinal glands Microvilli on the apical epithelium A plicae circularis is a permanent folding of the mucosa and submucosa into the lumen of the intestine.
CLINICAL CORRELATION Myelin proteins can be highly antigenic, leading to autoimmune disorders, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Peripheral Nerve The peripheral nerve consists of a bundle of neuronal axons, Schwann cells, and protective connective tissues. It carries impulses from the central nervous system to the most distal parts of the body and everywhere in between. Although individual neurons are surrounded by Schwann cells, a nerve fiber is more complex (Figure 1-23). The most external layer of a nerve, known as the epineurium, is a dense connective tissue layer that covers the entire nerve, including its vascular supply.
These B-cell antigen receptor complexes allow for the recognition of foreign antigens and subsequent activation of the B cell. Downstream cell signaling leads to the expression of necessary genes for terminal differentia- Ribosome Lysosome Euchromatin Heterochromatin Nucleolus Nucleus Golgi apparatus Rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum Centriole Mitochondrion A B A B B (A) Electron micrograph of a normal human lymphocyte (× 12,000). (B) Diagrammatic representation of a normal lymphocyte with organelles labeled.