Download ESMO Handbook of Cancer Prevention by Dirk Schrijvers, Hans-Jörg Senn, Håkan Mellstedt, Branko PDF

By Dirk Schrijvers, Hans-Jörg Senn, Håkan Mellstedt, Branko Zakotnik

This guide summarizes the fast-moving international of analysis into the genetics and prevention of melanoma. a global choice of specialists the following current the issues of so much relevance for oncologists and people concerned professionally with screening and chemotherapy courses.

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Extra resources for ESMO Handbook of Cancer Prevention

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This illustrates the fact that the growth rate of tumors is not identical in these countries. There is a lack of ability to accurately differentiate clinically important prostate cancer from latent disease; no reliable biomarker exists that can act as a surrogate endpoint. Plasma levels of testosterone and other androgens are only slightly different between the men living in both countries, and thus the relation between the androgen axis and prostate cancer development is debatable. Also, clinical data on effects of exogenous androgen substitution in regard to prostate safety are non-conclusive.

Cancer risk factors and risk assessment What are risk factors? Over the years there has accumulated a lot of evidence for association of certain factors that modulate the development of cancer. These are called risk factors. Risk factors may be: ■ Modifiable: – behavioral – environmental. qxd 12/12/2007 1:49 PM Page 20 ■ Non-modifiable: – biological: age; gender; complexion. – genetic. The effects of risk factors on carcinogenesis are related to: ■ ■ ■ ■ duration of exposure to the risk quantitative extent of exposure cumulative and synergistic effects of other factors evolution.

Inherited prostate cancer susceptibility genes discovered thus far encode participants in host responses to inflammation, suggesting that infection and inflammation contribute to the early development of the tumor. qxd 12/12/2007 1:50 PM Page 43 There are large geographical differences in the age-adjusted death rates from prostate cancer. In Japan, a country with a very low death rate from prostate cancer, the prevalence of prostate cancer detected at autopsy is almost 3000 times that of lethal prostate cancer, whereas the prevalence at autopsy in the United States is about 500 times that of death from prostate cancer.

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