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By Tadd Graham Fernée

Enlightenment and Violence: Modernity and Nation-Making, is a examine in Political History.  It compares sixteenth century Indian heritage to the early sleek histories of Iran, Turkey and Western Europe, that allows you to flooring research in their twentieth century nation-making studies inside of a standard complex. The imperative concentration is upon the Indian nationwide Independence circulation lower than Gandhi, and its hyperlink to the post-independence Nehru period.  A heritage of rules and practices, the publication proposes a multi-centred and non-Eurocentric interpretation of the Enlightenment as a human heritage.  As a comparative examine, it reconstructs how modernity used to be negotiated in several highbrow and political contexts as a countrywide discourse in the broader background of Enlightenment.  The comparability juxtaposes an ethic of reconciliation and totalizing tasks as ability in nation-making.  the belief indicates the potential of a brand new paradigm in non-violent clash solution for the trendy context, with very important theoretical and useful precedents.

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E. conforming to fixed historical laws and guaranteeing the victory of one side over the other in a conflict because of their privileged access to the Truth. Thus, the totality–assimilation mode of imagining extends the Platonic dualistic metaphor of the cave with its anti-democratic implications. e. rather than conforming to a principle of identity or definition); thirdly, that when viewed uniquely as an objective process (enclosed within known rules), modernization excludes broad public participation and so ceases to be democratic—it becomes the imagined project of a state elite laying claim to transcendent historical truth.

49 The French Revolution itself presents such a mixed-bag of forces and traditions. Francois Furet, Penser la Révolution française (Paris: Folio, 1978), 200. 50 Max Weber, “Basic Sociological Concepts,” in The Essential Weber (London: Routledge, 2004), 341–42. 51 Ibid, 331. xxxvi ENLIGHTENMENT AND VIOLENCE colonial appendages. 52 We also see smaller struggles inside of expanding state territory, following Karl Polanyi. e. Hegelian historicism, Herbert Spencer or Auguste Comte). 54 This serves to distinguish the logic of the Indian national movement under Gandhi as a self-conscious hegemonic project from other experiences of power seizure in this study, although the potential for this hegemonic politics is visible at the civil society level (if not leadership) to varying degrees in each instance (notably Iran showed powerful historical instances, and indeed does today).

As in the European case, the epistemic limit was the guarantee of non-violent conflict resolution. This non-violent mode of political imagining in statemaking was produced in dialectical conflict with powerful monotheistic social forces. These upheld an ontological link between sectarian truth and violence as the means to crisis resolution in early modernity. The Akbarian counter-tendency—embodied the “modesty of thought”—constitutes a discursive–practical formation. Similarly, the political mission of purity proclaimed by conservative forces was linked to power bids.

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