Download Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire by Gabor Agoston, Bruce Masters PDF

By Gabor Agoston, Bruce Masters

As soon as stretching from Vienna within the north to Iraq and Yemen within the south, the Ottoman Empire has performed an quintessential function within the background of Eurasia and the center East. The dynamics and complexity of the present-day center East and Balkans can't be understood with out an exam of the heritage of the Ottoman Empire that governed those areas for hundreds of years. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire offers an intensive review of the background and civilization of the Ottomans, with greater than four hundred A-to-Z entries targeting significant occasions, personalities, associations, and phrases. With signed articles via specialists within the box, this complete one-volume source additionally contains crucial information about imperialism and the rising Balkan, Arab, and Turkish nationalism; the dying of the empire; and Ottoman legacy within the Balkans and the center East. additional readings, nearly eighty five black-and-white images and maps, cross-references, a chronology, word list, bibliography, and an index supplement the textual content and provides readers an in-depth realizing of the huge and engaging heritage of the Ottoman Empire.

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To further strengthen the city’s economic life, Abbas forcefully resettled thousands of Armenian, Persian, and Turkish artisans and merchants from Julfa in Armenia and Tabriz in Azerbaijan, creating two new town quarters. He also invited European merchants and experts to his realm. While Abbas’s rule restored Safavid Persia’s former status in the region, curtailed Kızılbaş factionalism, and cemented royal authority with regard to the nomadic tribes, the shah’s dynastic policy ultimately weakened Persia.

Joining al-Afghani in Paris, Abduh helped publish the protest newspaper Al-Urwah al-wuthqa (The firm grip). He also met with British and French intellectuals to discuss what had become the two main issues of his intellectual inquiry: how to respond to colonialism, and the compatibility of Islamic religious belief with ideas of science and progress that had grown out of the European Enlightenment. Abduh returned to Egypt in 1888, largely through the intercession of the British, and was appointed a judge in the Muslim court system.

After spending most of his life in the seclusion of the palace, he succeeded to the throne at the relatively advanced age of 49. He was the oldest male member of an Ottoman dynasty endangered by the lack of princes. Abdülhamid compensated for his comparatively advanced age by presenting himself as a saintly figure. Making his grand viziers the primary authority 6 Abdülhamid II in running the government, he acted more as an advisor and arbitrator than as an absolutist sultan. Abdülhamid came to power near the close of the devastating Russo-Ottoman War of 1768–74, and his reign was characterized by an ongoing threat from Russian military and political forces.

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