By Harold Adams Innis
It has been stated that with no Harold A. Innis there might have been no Marshall McLuhan. Empire and Communications is one in all Innis's most crucial contributions to the controversy approximately how media effect the advance of cognizance and societies. during this foundational paintings, he lines humanity's flow from the oral culture of preliterate cultures to the digital media of modern occasions. alongside the way in which, he offers his personal influential innovations of oral conversation, time and area bias, and monopolies of data.
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Carpenter, p. 91. Evans thought Cypriote syllabary a modification or adaptation of Minoan to Greek and that second modification in Syria the basis of Phoenician alphabet. Evans suggests alphabet in Greece before 900 BC. Arthur Evans, The Palace of Minos at Knossos (London, 1921-35), vol. IV, ch. 112. 7 The Greek archaic alphabet was not cursive in form, but of the type used by Phoenicians about the middle of the ninth century. The earliest Greek inscriptions dated from about the middle of the eighth century.
In. part, it was responsible for the rise and fall of the Persian Empire. The problems of later political empires in the West followed its adaptability to languages. In adaptation to the demands of new languages, script was conventionalized into the alphabet. Trade was facilitated by a conventionalized alphabet and suited to the demands of large areas dominated by armed force, which were often supported by technological advances in improved breeds of horses, and the use of bronze and iron. Religion became conventionalized and monotheistic following adaptations of animistic religions dependent on agriculture.
A different language structure and systems of sounds led the Greeks to use Semitic consonantal characters (which were useless to their language) as vowels (which were indispensable to them). Since vowels were of equal value with consonants, they had to be represented in each written word. They permitted the expression of fine distinctions and light shades of meaning. The Greek language 'responds with happy elasticity to every demand of the Greek intellect... '8 Woolner described the change as one of the greatest triumphs of the human intellect.