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By G. D. Bishop (auth.)

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Beyond this region the characteristic of the JUGFET is horizontal, this being termed the pinchoff region, and since the slope is almost zero the output resistance of the JUGFET is very high indeed. As V D S is further increased, a value of VDS is reached when the drain gate breaks down in a similar way to a reverse-biased diode or Zener diode . The characteristic then proceeds vertically with a very high current flowing in the drain and usually considerable damage to the transistor. 8. 11 . As the gate voltage is increased in the negative direction to -1 V, -2 V, and so on, the drain current is seen to fall, since a large gate voltage results in a narrow channel.

VCE = 10 V h. 6 The input characteristic gives a direct method of determining this figure, the slope of the 'linear' part of the curve being measured. For the common-base transistor given the figure was 20 il, for the common-emitter transistor the slope is very high, beyond 80 IJA but reduces to about 200 mV/IO IJA = 20 kil below 10 pA(IBE)' The output characteristic gives a direct reading of output resistance Vea/Ic . this being the inverse of the slope of the 'linear' portion of the common-base characteristic resulting in a figure of several Mil.

The network can be a transistor, an amplifier or any electrical device and, if known, the values of VI, V2, t, and i 2 can be used to calculate various impedances around the circuit. 5 h·parameter circuits The hybrid parameters, or h-parameters, are so called because their units are varied, they are not all measured in n. c. signals. c. currents and voltages. The ratio of vII;1 can be very different to VIlli, depending on the point where the readings are taken on the characteristic curves. In a similar way the h-parameters can have lower-case values such as h fe or capital subscripts such as h F E .

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