Download Electronic Components and Technology by S. J. Sangwine (auth.) PDF

By S. J. Sangwine (auth.)

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A very high standard of air filtration and operator cleanliness is therefore essential. Operators must wear special hooded overalls to reduce contamination with skin particles. Smoking is not permitted, even during breaks outside the clean room, because of the quantity of particles exhaled for some time after smoking. Cosmetics are also banned because of the danger of particulate contamination. There is a trend towards automation in modern IC fabrication facilities to reduce the number of operators required and therefore improve cleanliness.

Integrated circuits have had a profound effect on electronic product design and utility in at least four ways. Firstly, IC technology is inherently a mass-production technology, producing low-cost devices. Secondly, ICs are miniaturized circuits typically less than about 8 mm across. This makes it possible to manufacture small electronic products such as wrist-watches and pocket calculators which combine a high level of functionality with small size. Thirdly, ICs are reliable: good quality pocket calculators, for example, are more likely to fail through wear and tear on their keys than through the failure of their ICs.

When the board dimensions and outline have been decided, the second stage in the design process is to decide how and where to position components. The component placements will be influenced by the logical structure of the circuit, by electrical requirements such as power distribution and by the need to minimize interactions between different parts of the circuit. The final step in the design process is to find a path for every connection in the circuit. In practice, this stage of design interacts with component placement as some components may have to be rearranged.

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