Download Electrical principles - second edition (1958) by H Cotton PDF

By H Cotton

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The AVR family has several primary characteristics: 11 • It is a common family of processors with code compatibility across the range because the processors all use the same RISC processor core. • The range of code-compatible chips allows the designer to find the right trade-off between features and cost. All AVR chips have the microprocessor core, but each chip in the range features a different set of peripheral ports and devices, with differing amounts of flash and RAM memory. This range of products allows the designer to select the chip which offers exactly the right amount of capability, and price point, for the job in hand.

9 CHAPTER 1 ■ A BRIEF HISTORY OF MICROCONTROLLERS Wraps Off AVR In 1996 the semiconductor company, Atmel, released a new product called AVR (by the way, Atmel says that the initials AVR don’t stand for anything in particular). The AVR is a microcontroller chip designed, from the ground up, around the RISC principles whose history and provenance we discussed in the previous section. This innovative product used, for the first time on a microcontroller, flash memory, meaning that it could easily be reprogrammed with new software while in situ11 on its application board.

Equally important, if your processor achieved more useful work with each instruction, you needed fewer instructions for any given program task, and the program size would be smaller. Minimizing program size was a very important consideration in 1980, when a computer that had 512 kilobytes of RAM (half a megabyte) was a top-of-the-range machine! This gold rush went on until the mid-1980s with processors getting faster, but more complex, with each passing year. ’s VAX boasted an instruction set totaling about 160 instructions, further subdivided into more than 400 variants.

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