Download Effect of Entrainment and Wind Shear on Nuclear Cloud Rise by Daniel E. Zalewski PDF

By Daniel E. Zalewski

Actual modeling of nuclear cloud upward push is necessary in probability prediction following a nuclear detonation. This thesis recommends advancements to the version at the moment utilized by DOD. It considers a single-term as opposed to a three-term entrainment equation, the worth of the entrainment and eddy viscous drag parameters, in addition to the influence of wind shear within the cloud upward push following a nuclear detonation. It examines departures from the 1979 model of the dept of protection Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) with the present code utilized in the possibility Prediction and evaluation potential (HPAC) code model 3.2. the advice for a single-term entrainment equation, with consistent worth parameters, with out wind shear corrections, and with no cloud oscillations is predicated on either a statistical research utilizing sixty seven U.S. nuclear atmospheric try out pictures and the actual illustration of the modeling. The statistical research optimized the parameter values of curiosity for 4 situations: the three-term entrainment equation with wind shear and with no wind shear in addition to the single-term entrainment equation with and with no wind shear. The thesis then examines the impact of cloud oscillations as an important departure within the code. changes to consumer enter atmospheric tables are pointed out as a possible challenge within the calculation of stabilized cloud dimensions in HPAC.

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Extra info for Effect of Entrainment and Wind Shear on Nuclear Cloud Rise Modeling

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Table 3. Comparison Cases Case Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Description 1979 Corrected DELFIC with a three-term entrainment equation and wind shear corrections. 1979 Corrected DELFIC with a three-term entrainment equation and no wind shear corrections. 1979 Corrected DELFIC with a single-term entrainment equation and wind shear corrections. 1979 Corrected DELFIC with a single-term entrainment equation and no wind shear corrections. 40 Based on the best values for each of the cases, the fractional deviation was calculated for each shot and the FRMS and FMD for the complete set of shots.

7: 39) He therefore includes the calculation for characteristic velocity in his equation, replacing the cloud rise velocity in equation (21) with Huebsch’s definition of characteristic speed. Given the validity of Norment’s entrainment equation and the similarity to Huebsch’s equation, what remains is an analysis of the significance of the two additional terms. In his discussion, Norment states that the contribution of the pressure term is 24 small at all times relative to the other two and therefore neglecting this term should not significantly influence the final results.

E. ”(10:2-3) Figure 3. 75 until it reaches apogee at which time the cloud expands laterally while maintaining its vertical dimensions. Also, we are using the vertical cross sections because as Figure 4 points out, the horizontal winds can only flow through the vertical projection of the surface to volume ratio, not the horizontal projection. Therefore the development of the new wind shear term is as follows. vertical cross-section area of a sphere of radius r is π r 2 vertical cross-section area of a spheroid of semi-axes a and b is π ab volume of a sphere of radius r is volume of a spheroid is surface to volume ratios are Both of these terms will be written as the vertical cross-section has two faces, 2 × 4 3 πr 3 4 2 πa b 3 3 3 and 4r 4a 3 , where r is the horizontal radius.

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