Download Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends, by Millennium Ecosystem Assessment PDF

By Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

People have replaced ecosystems extra speedily and commonly within the final 50 years than in any related interval of human historical past. we've performed this to fulfill the turning out to be calls for for nutrition, clean water, bushes, fiber, and gasoline. whereas adjustments to ecosystems have more suitable the healthiness of billions of individuals, they've got additionally triggered a considerable and principally irreversible loss in range of lifestyles on the earth, and feature strained the ability of ecosystems to proceed supplying serious services.Among the findings:Approximately 60% of the prone that aid lifestyles on the earth are being degraded or used unsustainably. the dangerous effects of this degradation may develop considerably worse within the subsequent 50 years.Only 4 surroundings companies were more advantageous within the final 50 years: vegetation, cattle, aquaculture, and the sequestration of carbon.The capability of ecosystems to neutralize toxins, guard us from normal failures, and regulate the outbreaks of pests and ailments is declining significantly.Terrestrial and freshwater platforms are achieving the boundaries in their skill to soak up nitrogen.Harvesting of fish and different assets from coastal and marine structures is compromising their skill to carry foodstuff within the future.Richly illustrated with maps and graphs, present kingdom and traits offers an overview of Earth's skill to supply twenty-four specific prone necessary to human future health. those contain meals, fiber, and different fabrics; the rules of the weather and clean water structures; underlying aid platforms comparable to nutrient biking; and the achievement of cultural, religious, and aesthetic values. the amount can pay specific cognizance to the present wellbeing and fitness of key ecosystems, together with inland waters, forests, oceans, croplands, and dryland structures, between others. it will likely be an imperative reference for scientists, environmentalists, organisation execs, and scholars.

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Additional resources for Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends, Volume 1 (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series)

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Exports from developing countries and the Southern Hemisphere presently offset much of the demand shortfall in European, North American, and East Asian markets. The growth in demand for fish protein is being met in part by aquaculture, which now accounts for 22% of total fish production and 40% of fish consumed as food. Marine aquaculture has not to date relieved pressure on wild fisheries, because the food provided to captive fish is partly based on wild-harvested fish products. Government policies are significant drivers of food production and consumption patterns, both locally and globally.

In some cases, rehabilitation is effectively impossible. [15] Protection from Floods The impact of extreme weather events is increasing in many regions around the world. [7, 16, 19] For example, flood damage recorded in Europe in 2002 was higher than in any previous year. Increasing human vulnerability, rather than increasing physical magnitude or frequency of the events themselves, is overall the primary factor underlying the rising impact. People are increasingly occupying regions and locations that are exposed to flooding—settling on coasts and floodplains, for instance—thus exacerbating their vulnerability to extreme events.

The consequence of the excessive and imbalanced nutrient load in aquatic ecosystems is an explosion of growth of certain plants (particularly algae) and a loss of many other forms of life, a syndrome known as eutrophication. The decomposing residues of the plants (often compounded by organic pollutants) deplete the water of oxygen, creating anaerobic ‘‘dead zones’’ devoid of life forms that depend on oxygen. Such dead zones have been discovered in many lakes and estuaries and off the mouths of several large rivers, and they are expanding.

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