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By George E. Lane

An account of the re-emergence of Persia as an international participant and the reassertion of its cultural, political and non secular hyperlinks with Turkic Lands, this booklet opposes the way, for too lengthy, the total interval of Mongol domination of Iran has been seen from a damaging viewpoint. notwithstanding arguably the preliminary irruption of the Mongols introduced little convenience to these in its direction, this isn't the case with the second one 'invasion' of the Chinggisids. This research demonstrates that Hülegü Khan used to be welcomed as a king and a saviour after the depredations of his predecessors, instead of as a conqueror, and that the preliminary a long time of his dynasty's rule have been characterized by way of a renaissance within the cultural lifetime of the Iranian plateau.

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The eventual fate of the principal protagonists merely fuelled these theories. Whereas the DawÇt-dÇr was eventually executed by Hülegü, the wazir retained his post after the capture of Baghdad partly due to the recommendations of fellow Shi ite Na‚¥r al-D¥n ˝s¥. Mustawf¥ in his afarnÇmah, paints a fuller and perhaps more balanced account of the events and intrigues preceding the fall of Baghdad. He first points out that the city had been devastated before Hülegü’s arrival by a particularly destructive flood: The river Tigris rose that year, and the region became like a sea.

97 This was not the progress of an army of conquest. 99 Shams al-D¥n was summoned into Hülegü’s presence and ordered to approach the IsmÇ ¥l¥ Muªtashim of Qohestan, Na‚¥r al-D¥n, and to demand his submission. The Muªtashim 20 DIVINE PUNISHMENT OR GOD’S SECRET INTENT? 1111 2 3 4 5111 6 7 8 9 1011 1 2 3111 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40111 1 2 3 44111 was old and feeble and readily agreed to Shams al-D¥n’s suggestion that he should accompany him back to Hülegü’s ordu.

It now remained for him to seek an accommodation with the caliph in the City of Peace and then to again don the mantle of the wrath of God and to lead his armies created by God in his anger, against the forces of the regicidal Mamluks of Egypt. Just as the irruption of the Mongols into the lands of Iran in the first quarter of the thirteenth century must be differentiated from the arrival of Hülegü Khan in the fifties, so too must the campaigns he launched against Baghdad and the lands under the sway of the Mamluks south-west of Azerbaijan, be distinguished from the relatively peaceful occupation of IrÇq Ajam whose lands had been allotted to him by Möngke Qa an.

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