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By Anil K. Maini

The basics and implementation of electronic electronics are necessary to figuring out the layout and dealing of consumer/industrial electronics, communications, embedded structures, pcs, protection and army apparatus. units utilized in purposes equivalent to those are continuously lowering in dimension and utilising extra advanced expertise. it really is for this reason crucial for engineers and scholars to appreciate the basics, implementation and alertness rules of electronic electronics, units and built-in circuits. this is often so we can use the main acceptable and powerful strategy to go well with their technical want.

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Digital Electronics. Principles, Devices and Applications [messy]

The basics and implementation of electronic electronics are necessary to realizing the layout and dealing of consumer/industrial electronics, communications, embedded structures, desktops, safety and army gear. units utilized in purposes comparable to those are consistently reducing in dimension and making use of extra complicated know-how.

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0001 0101)BCD . The BCD code described above is more precisely known as the 8421 BCD code, with 8, 4, 2 and 1 representing the weights of different bits in the four-bit groups, starting from MSB and proceeding towards LSB. This feature makes it a weighted code, which means that each bit in the four-bit group representing a given decimal digit has an assigned Digital Electronics: Principles, Devices and Applications Anil K. Maini © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 1 BCD codes. Decimal 8421 BCD code 4221 BCD code 5421 BCD code 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 0000 0001 0010 0011 1000 0111 1100 1101 1110 1111 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 weight.

In such a case, if the registers are eight bits or wider, the register space is wasted. In the case of packed BCD numbers, two BCD digits are stored in a single eight-bit register. The process of combining two BCD digits so that they are stored in one eight-bit register involves shifting the number in the upper register to the left 4 times and then adding the numbers in the upper and lower registers. The process is illustrated by showing the storage of decimal digits ‘5’ and ‘7’: • • • • Decimal digit 5 is initially stored in the eight-bit register as: 0000 0101.

4. For octal–hexadecimal conversion, we can go from the given octal number to its binary equivalent and then from the binary equivalent to its hex counterpart. For hexadecimal–octal conversion, we can go from the hex to its binary equivalent and then from the binary number to its octal equivalent. 9 Assume an arbitrary number system having a radix of 5 and 0, 1, 2, L and M as its independent digits. L1); (b) the total number of possible four-digit combinations in this arbitrary number system. 64)10 .

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