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Additional info for Developments in LEDs for Lighting
Fortunately, the LEDs themselves were not the main cause of output decline. After extensive testing, most white and blue LED packagers have changed over to either a range of silicone encapsulants that are not sensitive to these blue wavelengths or to UV- and blue-resistant epoxies, an important consideration for UV LEDs. As white (and blue) LED lumen outputs climb ever higher and as more multi-LED high-brightness modules are used, the encapsulation medium of the moulded lens materials become more important and must have low absorption and good stability to ensure extended service life for the lighting units.
There is a brilliant future for the white LED in the general lighting market, but high dollar volumes are still some time away, although any cost performance breakthrough could accelerate the process. 94 billion)) with an almost 40 billion-unit market. Low wattage LEDs, on the market for over 30 years, are a separate use category such as indicator lights and eight segment alpha-numeric chips, with total annual sales of about $2 billion with about 50 billion units and low single digit growth rates.
Mobile phones), the materials weaknesses will restrict the OLED's competitive ability in other markets for some time. In signals and signalling, LED advantages have been obvious for some time and LED installations continue to displace the competition worldwide. As more field experience is gained, LED performance and reliability continues to improve manufacturing technology and advances in this sector will contribute to white LED performance. Drivers For most of its commercial life, the LED and its field engineers have regarded it as a DC device and inadequate drivers may have slowed its acceptance in large lighting systems.