By A. J. Croft
This publication is intended for laboratory staff who for one cause or one other have a necessity to chill whatever all the way down to temperatures less than that of liquid nitrogen - particularly to four. 2°K and under. It doesn't care for experimental options at low temperatures, yet i've got attempted to convey the reader nose to nose with the brutishrealities of the required undefined. As weIl as giving information regarding resources of provide of kit, i've got long gone into so me element approximately how a few of it may be made in laboratory workshops for the sake of these who're wanting funds yet blessed with useful technical help. as far as hugely really good goods comparable to liquefiers, fridges, refrigerant bins, cryostat dewars, and so forth. , are involved, i've got integrated aIl assets of offer which i've got acquired to he ar of; relating to extra generaIly on hand gear basically consultant resources of identified reliability were quoted. Any omissions or mistakes needs to be placed down both to my very own lack of awareness, stupidity, or loss of will toget concerning the international, or even to the trouble i've got had in extracting info from brands. although, so much have long past to nice difficulty to aid, and that i desire i've got performed them justice. pointed out to paintings indifferently in inches and centimetres and perched among the opposing puIls of the us and Europe, i've got used a mix of devices that can surprise the purist.
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Additional info for Cryogenic Laboratory Equipment
By quite simple means it is possible to combine a joint of this sort with a valve. 7. COMMERCIAL TRANSFER LINES Many firms offer transfer lines complete or in seetions for all liquid refrigerants, and these will be found listed in the Appendix. 8. LABORATORY-BUILT TRANSFER LINES Transfer lines for liquid refrigerants can be made up quite easily in the laboratory with the advantages that they are then much cheaper than those available commercially, can be made to measure, and may even have a better performance.
The time taken to defrost varies from 2 to 6 hr. As in the case of the ADL-Collins helium liquefier, these machines give excellent service if they are carefully looked after. An Oxford laboratory has had one in more or less continuous use for over ten years. It is completely stripped down and reassembled by a member of the laboratory staff once a year and spare parts fitted where there are any signs of wear. This is not to say that the service provided by the makers is not excellent, but rather to indicate that the machine is such that it can be maintained indefmitely by a sufficiently capable technician.
In the case of liquid-helium lines more possibilities offer themselves, including the use of soft solder for joints. However, there is also to be considered the necessity for low heat conductance along the outside tube of the end sections and the desirability of making the inner tube very thin-waIled. Some commonly used methods of fabrication are as foIlows: 1. Two pieces of thin-walled stainless steel ("cryogenic") tubing are arranged coaxially, loaded, and bent. A special bender has to be used because with this tubing a much larger radius is required for the bend than is usual for the diameter.