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By Charles Issawi

Charles Issawi's choice of essays, Cross-Cultural Encounters and Conflicts, has been written within the trust examine of the earlier encounters and conflicts among the world's significant cultures can make clear their nature and value. notwithstanding the emphasis is at the center East, of which Issawi is one among our top-rated students, the topics coated right here variety in scope from the nice old civilizations to Shelley's ardour for the center East, from the mess ups of the Greeks as empire developers to the preeminence of English as a global language this present day. different essays research both the way sure cultures have been shaped, or the consequences of the direct keep an eye on of 1 tradition over one other, or cross-cultural perceptions, so much particularly the dramatic swap within the Western notion of the Orient among the eighteenth and 19th centuries.

In this age of multiculturalism, conflicts among the world's cultures became a dominant characteristic of the foreign panorama. this glorious assortment is a much-needed exploration in their old nature.

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Extra info for Cross-Cultural Encounters and Conflicts

Sample text

But an imperial framework was indispensable for the creation of a culture area. The effect on culture imprinting of two other factors, chronology and form of government, may also be briefly examined. As regards chronology, there seems to be no significant correlation between it and the formation of cultural areas. The Chinese and Indian areas took shape well before the Christian era, the Latin European and Arab areas in late antiquity, and the Latin American, Russian, and Anglo-Saxon in early modern times.

Despite these exclusions, there is still a long list to be examined. 3 Most important in medieval times is the Arab Empire. , when—following the earlier loss of Spain and North Africa—the Tulunids in Egypt and the Saffarids in Iran shook off the rule of the caliphate. Modern empires include the Ottoman, Moghul, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, British, and Russian. And straddling all of these periods stands the Chinese Empire. In order to decrease the degree of arbitrariness in the criteria selected, one can reduce the figures given above.

No attempt is made to study the factors that facilitated the establishment and expansion of empires. This decision means omitting all reference to military, economic, demographic, technological, and other aspects of history which, although of the utmost importance in other respects, are not essential to the point at issue: the reasons for the formation of culture areas. With few exceptions, no attempt is made to discuss ideologies of empire. 26 Cross-Cultural Encounters and Conflicts CULTURE MAKERS In this section, culture is interpreted in a very restricted sense; it refers only to "high culture," that is, religion, law, literature, philosophy, the natural and human sciences, music, and the visual arts.

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