By Jonathan J. Scragg
Jonathan Scragg files his paintings on a truly promising fabric compatible to be used in sunlight cells. Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (CZTS) is a least expensive, earth-abundant fabric compatible for giant scale deployment in photovoltaics. Jonathan pioneered and optimized a cost-efficient path to this fabric regarding electroplating of the 3 metals involved, by way of quick thermal processing (RTP) in sulfur vapour. His superbly exact RTP experiences – mixed with innovations akin to XRD, EDX and Raman – exhibit the advanced relationships among composition, processing and photovoltaic functionality. This remarkable thesis contributes to the improvement of unpolluted, sustainable and replacement assets of energy
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Additional resources for Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Thin Films for Photovoltaics: Synthesis and Characterisation by Electrochemical Methods
Since Zn has a rather negative standard reduction potential, hydrogen evolution is expected to occur to some extent during deposition. The hydrogen evolution reaction will increase the pH in the vicinity of the working electrode because H+ ions are consumed. The pH buffer is used to maintain a constant pH throughout the deposition so that the deposition conditions do not change. The relevant electrochemical reactions at pH 3 are: Zn2þ þ 2eÀ ! Zn0 ðE ¼ À1:00 VÞ ðR 2:11Þ Hþ þ eÀ ! 20 V if the substrate becomes covered with Zn, due to its high hydrogen overpotential.
1 Co-Deposition and the SEL Approach There are two main strategies for metallic precursor production using electrodeposition. In the first case, all of the required elements (here Cu, Sn and Zn) can be deposited together in one stage to produce a mixed precursor film. Alternatively, the individual elements can be deposited in sequential layers resulting in a ‘stacked’ film. These two approaches are referred to as the ‘co-deposition’ and ‘stacked elemental layer’ (SEL) routes, respectively. At the start of this project, neither approach had been used for CZTS, however since that time there have been several publications concerning the co-deposition route [5, 6] and one concerning the SEL route , aside from the publications as a result of this work [8–11].
The deposition potential was applied, and then the substrate was introduced into the solution. e. zero current flow) conditions were imposed. After deposition, the substrates were quickly removed from the setup and the excess electrolyte was rinsed off with milliQ water. The PTFE was removed and rinsing continued for ca. one minute. The sample was then dried under flowing nitrogen. 6 Deposition Procedure at the Rotating Disc Electrode The rotating disc electrode (RDE) head used in this investigation was custom-built to accept the substrates in use, which were approx.