Download Control of Human Voluntary Movement by john rothwell PDF

By john rothwell

This complete textbook illustrates the buzz and the problems of operating on the interface among natural and utilized learn. Written with the coed firmly in brain, the textual content presents a concise account of the fundamental anatomy and serve as of the elements of the CNS excited about controlling physique move. scientific details is built-in all through and, anywhere attainable, information of correct experiments given.

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Efficiency of muscle contraction. As shown above, maximum work will be performed by a muscle shortening at intermediate muscle lengths. Power, which is the rate at which work is done, also is maximum at these lengths. Thus, in order to achieve maximum efficiency of muscle, it is necessary to arrange for the contraction to take place at about these velocities and lengths. A good example of the importance of these effects in normal movement is given by the gearing on a bicycle. Load and speed are matched to the properties of the muscle so that power output can be maintained regardless of the steepness of the incline.

Efficiency of muscle contraction. As shown above, maximum work will be performed by a muscle shortening at intermediate muscle lengths. Power, which is the rate at which work is done, also is maximum at these lengths. Thus, in order to achieve maximum efficiency of muscle, it is necessary to arrange for the contraction to take place at about these velocities and lengths. A good example of the importance of these effects in normal movement is given by the gearing on a bicycle. Load and speed are matched to the properties of the muscle so that power output can be maintained regardless of the steepness of the incline.

Most fibres do not have direct contact with other fibres of the same unit. The same method allows counts to be made of the number of fibres per unit. However, a more common way of estimating the average number of fibres per unit in different muscles is to count the total number of fibres in the muscle and divide by the number of motor axons in the muscle nerve. In animal experiments, counts of motor axons usually are made one to two weeks after deafferentation by section of the dorsal roots. Obviously, in human material, such pre-treatment is not possible: estimates of the number of motor fibres are made by counting the number of large axons (greater than 7-8 ~m diameter) in intact muscle nerves, and then assuming 40-50% of these are sensory axons.

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